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2014-09-29 10:21:40
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  1. What are the four fractions of Semen and its corresponding concentration in normal semen?
    • Spermatozoa  -  5%
    • Seminal Fluid  -  60-70%
    • Prostate Fluid  -  20-30%
    • Bulbourethral Glands  -  5%
    • A. Urinary Bladder
    • B. Vas Deferens
    • C. Urethra
    • D. Penis
    • E. Glans Penis
    • F. Seminal Vesicle
    • G. Rectum
    • H. Ejaculatory Duct
    • I. Prostate Gland
    • J. Anus
    • K. Bulbourethral Gland
    • L. Epididymis
    • M. Testis
    • N. Scrotum
    • A. Ureter
    • B. Vas deferens
    • C. Prostate gland
    • D. Penis
    • E. Urinary bladder
    • F. Seminal Vesicle
    • G. Bulbourethral Gland
    • H. Epididymis
    • I. Scrotum
    • J. Urethra
  2. Where is the seminiferous tubules located?
  3. Precursor of Spermatozoa
    Germ cells
  4. they provide support and nutrients for the germ cells as they undergo spermatogenesis
    Specialized Sertoli cells
  5. where the sperm develops the flagella
  6. storage of sperm before ejaculation
  7. meeting place of the sperm and seminal fluid
    ejaculatory ducts
  8. this fluid contains a high concentration of fructose that comprises most of the semen
    seminal fluid
  9. source of energy of the sperm to move the flagella
  10. located below the bladder that surrounds the upper urethra and aids in propelling the sperm through the urethra by contractions during ejaculation
    prostate gland
  11. comprise the acidic portion of the semen
    prostate fluid
  12. chemicals present in the prostate fluid that is responsible for both the coagulation and liquefaction of the semen
    • acid phosphatase
    • citric acid
    • zinc
    • proteolytic enzymes
  13. produces the thick alkaline mucus of the semen
    bulbourethral gland
  14. When is the best time to collect sperm sample
    2-3 days of sexual abstinence but not longer than 5 days
  15. what is the effect of prolonged abstinence in sperm collection?
    increased volume and decreased motility
    • A. Epididymis
    • B. Ductus deferens
    • C. Seminal vesicles
    • D. Prostate gland
    • E. Bulbourethral glands
  16. intervals between collection of sperm sample following a 3-sample test
    2-week interval
  17. storage temp of sperm sample
    37C or RT
  18. Semen Analysis Parameters
    • AP2CMV
    • Appearance
    • pH
    • Sperm Concentration
    • Sperm Count
    • Sperm Motility
    • Sperm Morphology
    • Volume
    • Viscosity
  19. this type of test may be useful to screen the sperm for WBC
    leukocyte esterase reagent strip test
  20. Red coloration of sperm may be due to
  21. yellow coloration of sperm may be cause by
    • urine contam
    • prolonged abstinence
    • medications
  22. urine affects the sperm motility
    true or false
  23. a fresh semen specimen is clotted and should liquefy within
    30-60 mins after collection
  24. what may be added to the semen if it does not liquefy after 2 hours?
  25. Decreased volume after proper collection may be indicative of
  26. consistency of the fluid and may be related to specimen liquefaction
  27. normal semen is
    acidic or alkaline?
  28. Equation for Total Sperm Count
    Sperm Concentration x Specimen Volume
  29. Process of immobilizing the sperm for specimen count
  30. Diluting fluid for Sperm analysis
    • Sodium Bicarbonate and formalin (Traditional)
    • Saline and distilled water
  31. stain that may be used to aid sperm count in using bright field microscopy
    crystal violet
  32. immature sperm and wbc are termed as
    round cells
  33. amount of leukocytes counted that is associated with infertility
  34. presence of >1 million spermatids/mL indicates
    disruption of spermatogenesis
  35. manner of reporting sperm concentration
  36. recommended the Neubauer chamber count for Sperm count
  37. amount of semen used for assessing motility
    10ul under 22x22mm cover slip
  38. no. of fields evaluated for sperm motility
    20 High-power fields
  39. the presence of a high percentage of immobile sperm and clumps of sperm automatically indicate infertility
    True or False
    False, it requires further evaluation to determine sperm viability or the presence of sperm agglutinins
  40. 4 parts of the sperm that is evaluated in morphology
    • head 
    • neckpiece
    • midpiece
    • tail
  41. describe a normal sperm head
    • oval shaped
    • approx 5um long
    • 3um wide
  42. describe the length of sperm tail
    45 um long
  43. poor ovum penetration may be due to
    abnormal head
  44. abnormalities of these affect the motility of sperm
    • neckpiece
    • midpiece
    • tail
  45. part of sperm that is critical to ovum penetration located at the tip of the head
    acrosomal cap
  46. approx size of the acrosomal cap
    • approx half of the head
    • 2/3 of the sperm nucleus
  47. Thickest part of the sperm tail
  48. surrounds the midpiece that produces the energy required by the tail for motility
    mitochondrial sheath
  49. best stain for Sperm
    papanicolaou stain
  50. how long are air dried slides stable?
    24 hours
  51. number of sperm that should be identified
  52. method of sperm analysis wherein addt'l parameters are done
    Kruger's strict criteria
  53. Equation for counting round cells in Sperm analysis
  54. it is suspected when a specimen has a normal sperm concentration with markedly decreased motility
    Decreased Sperm Viability
  55. what stain is mixed with semen to evaluate viability?
  56. in Sperm viability test, which of the sperm (alive or dead) is infiltrated by the dye?
  57. Normal viability of sperm requires ?% living cells
  58. test used to detect presence of fructose in sperm
    Resorcinol Test
  59. normal quantitative level of fructose
    =>13umol per ejaculate
  60. how is quantitative measurement of sperm fructose done?
    spectrophotometric method
  61. what can be done to preserve the fructose content of sperm?
  62. presence of these antibodies is suspected when clumps of sperm are observed during routine semen analysis
    Antisperm Abs
  63. 2 tests to detect presence of antibody-coated sperm
    • mixed agglutination reaction
    • immunobead test
  64. a screening procedure used primarily to detect the presence of IgG abs in semen
    Mixed agglutination reaction
  65. a more specific procedure in that it can be used to detect the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA Abs and demonstrates what area of the sperm the autoAbs are affecting
    Immunobead test
  66. type of beads used in immunobead test
    polyacrylamide beads
  67. 3 microbes most commonly suspected affecting sperm composition
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Mycoplasma hominis
    • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  68. chemicals present in semen that is usually  tested
    • neutral alpha-glucosidase
    • zinc
    • citric acid
    • prostatic acid phosphatase
  69. decreased neutral alpha-glucosidase suggests a disorder of the
  70. Decreased zinc, citrate, and Acid phosphatase indicated a lack of this fluid
    prostatic fluid
  71. determination of this may be used in cases of alleged rape
    • acid phosphatase
    • detection of seminal glycoprotein p30 (more specific)
  72. the only concern in postvasectomy semen analysis
    presence of spermatozoa
  73. test involved in sperm function tests
    • hamster egg penetration assay
    • cervical mucus penetration test
    • hypo-osmotic swelling test
    • in vitro acrosome reaction
  74. Maturation of spermatozoa takes place in the:
    A. Sertoli cells
    B. Seminiferous tubules
    C. Epididymis
    D. Seminal vesicles
  75. Enzymes for the coagulation and liquefaction of semen are produced by the:
    A. Seminal vesicles
    B. Bulbourethral glands
    C. Ductus deferens
    D. Prostate gland
  76. The major component of seminal fluid is:
    A. Glucose
    B. Fructose
    C. Acid phosphatase
    D. Citric acid
  77. If the first portion of a semen specimen is not collected,the semen analysis will have an abnormal:
    A. ph
    B. Viscosity
    C. Sperm concentration
    D. Sperm motility
  78. Failure of laboratory personnel to document the time a semen sample is collected primarily affects the interpretationof semen:
    A. Appearance
    B. Volume
    C. ph
    D. Viscosity
  79. Liquefaction of a semen specimen should take place within:
    A. 1 hour
    B. 2 hours
    C. 3 hours
    D. 4 hours
  80. A semen specimen delivered to the laboratory in a condom has a normal sperm count and markedly decreased sperm motility. This is indicative of:
    A. Decreased fructose
    B. Antispermicide in the condom
    C. Increased semen viscosity
    D. Increased semen alkalinity
  81. An increased semen ph may be caused by:
    A. Prostatic infection
    B. Decreased prostatic secretions
    C. Decreased bulbourethral gland secretions
    D. All of the above
  82. Proteolytic enzymes may be added to semen specimens to:
    A. Increase the viscosity
    B. Dilute the specimen
    C. Decrease the viscosity
    D. Neutralize the specimen
  83. The normal sperm concentration is:
    A. Below 20 million per microliter
    B. Above 20 million per milliliter
    C. Below 20 million per milliliter
    D. Above 20 million per microliter
  84. Given the following information, calculate the sperm concentration:
    dilution, 1:20
    sperm counted in five RBC squares on each side of the hemocytometer, 80and 86 volume, 3 mL
    A. 80 million per milliliter
    B. 83 million per milliliter
    C. 86 million per milliliter
    D. 169 million per microliter
  85. dilution, 1:20
    volume, 3 mL

    Using the above information, calculate the sperm concentration when 80 sperm are counted in 1 WBC square and 86 sperm are counted in another WBC square
    A. 83 million per milliliter
    B. 166 million per ejaculate
    C. 16.6 million per milliliter
    D. 50 million per ejaculate
  86. The primary reason to dilute a semen specimen before performing a sperm concentration is to:
    A. Immobilize the sperm
    B. Facilitate the chamber count
    C. Decrease the viscosity
    D. Stain the sperm
  87. When performing a sperm concentration, 60 sperm are counted in the RBC squares on one side of the hemocytometer and 90 sperm are counted in the RBC squares on the other side. The specimen is diluted 1:20. The:
    A. Specimen should be rediluted and counted
    B. Sperm count is 75 million per milliliter
    C. Sperm count is greater than 5 million per milliliter
    D. Sperm concentation is abnormal
  88. Sperm motility evaluations are performed:
    A. Immediately after the specimen is collected
    B. Within 1–2 hours of collection
    C. After 3 hours of incubation
    D. At 6-hour intervals for one day
  89. Sperm motility is evaluated on the basis of:
    A. Speed
    B. Direction
    C. Tail movement
    D. Both A and B
  90. The percentage of sperm showing average motility that is considered normal is:
    A. 25%
    B. 50%
    C. 60%
    D. 75%
  91. All of the following are grading criteria for sperm motility except:
    A. Rapid straight-line movement
    B. Rapid lateral movement
    C. No forward progression
    D. No movement
  92. The purpose of the acrosomal cap is:
    A. Ovum penetration
    B. Protection of the nucleus
    C. Energy for tail movement
    D. Protection of the neckpiece
  93. The sperm part containing a mitochondrial sheath is the:
    A. Head
    B. Neckpiece
    C. Midpiece
    D. Tail
  94. All of the following are associated with sperm motility except the:
    A. Head
    B. Neckpiece
    C. Midpiece
    D. Tail
  95. The morphologic shape of a normal sperm head is:
    A. Round
    B. Tapered
    C. Oval
    D. Amorphous
  96. Normal sperm morphology when using the WHO criteria is:
    A. >30% normal forms
    B. <30% normal forms
    C. >15% abnormal forms
    D. <15% normal forms
  97. Additional parameters measured by Kruger strict morphology include all of the following except:
    A. Viability
    B. Presence of vacuoles
    C. Acrosome size
    D. Tail length
  98. Round cells that are of concern and may be included in sperm counts and morphology analysis are:
    A. Leukocytes
    B. Spermatids
    C. RBCs
    D. Both A and B
  99. If 5 round cells per 100 sperm are counted in a sperm morphology smear and the sperm concentation is 30 million, the concentraton of round cells is:
    A. 150,000
    B. 1.5 million
    C. 300,000
    D. 15 million
  100. Following an abnormal sperm motility test with a normal sperm count, what additional test might be ordered?
    A. Fructose level
    B. Zinc level
    C. Mar test
    D. Eosin-nigrosin stain
  101. Follow-up testing for a low sperm concentration would include testing for:
    A. Antisperm antibodies
    B. Seminal fluid fructose
    C. Sperm viability
    D. Prostatic acid phosphatase
  102. The immunobead test for antisperm antibodies:
    A. Detects the presence of male antibodies
    B. Determines the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgAantibodies
    C. Determines the location of antisperm antibodies
    D. All of the above
  103. Measurement of alpha-glucosidase is performed to detect a disorder of the:
    A. Seminiferous tubules
    B. Epididymis
    C. Prostate gland
    D. Bulbourethral glands
  104. A specimen delivered to the laboratory with a request for prostatic acid phosphatase and glycoprotein p30 was collected to determine:
    A. Prostatic infection
    B. Presence of antisperm antibodies
    C. A possible rape
    D. Successful vasectomy
  105. Following a negative postvasectomy wet preparation, the specimen should be:
    A. Centrifuged and reexamined
    B. Stained and reexamined
    C. Reported as no sperm seen
    D. Both A and B
  106. Standardization of procedures and reference values for semen analysis is primarily provided by the:
    A. Manufacturers of instrumentation
    B. WHO
    C. Manufacturers of control samples
    D. Clinical laboratory improvement amendments