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  1. What are the four fractions of Semen and its corresponding concentration in normal semen?
    • Spermatozoa  -  5%
    • Seminal Fluid  -  60-70%
    • Prostate Fluid  -  20-30%
    • Bulbourethral Glands  -  5%
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    • A. Urinary Bladder
    • B. Vas Deferens
    • C. Urethra
    • D. Penis
    • E. Glans Penis
    • F. Seminal Vesicle
    • G. Rectum
    • H. Ejaculatory Duct
    • I. Prostate Gland
    • J. Anus
    • K. Bulbourethral Gland
    • L. Epididymis
    • M. Testis
    • N. Scrotum
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    • A. Ureter
    • B. Vas deferens
    • C. Prostate gland
    • D. Penis
    • E. Urinary bladder
    • F. Seminal Vesicle
    • G. Bulbourethral Gland
    • H. Epididymis
    • I. Scrotum
    • J. Urethra
  4. Where is the seminiferous tubules located?
  5. Precursor of Spermatozoa
    Germ cells
  6. they provide support and nutrients for the germ cells as they undergo spermatogenesis
    Specialized Sertoli cells
  7. where the sperm develops the flagella
  8. storage of sperm before ejaculation
  9. meeting place of the sperm and seminal fluid
    ejaculatory ducts
  10. this fluid contains a high concentration of fructose that comprises most of the semen
    seminal fluid
  11. source of energy of the sperm to move the flagella
  12. located below the bladder that surrounds the upper urethra and aids in propelling the sperm through the urethra by contractions during ejaculation
    prostate gland
  13. comprise the acidic portion of the semen
    prostate fluid
  14. chemicals present in the prostate fluid that is responsible for both the coagulation and liquefaction of the semen
    • acid phosphatase
    • citric acid
    • zinc
    • proteolytic enzymes
  15. produces the thick alkaline mucus of the semen
    bulbourethral gland
  16. When is the best time to collect sperm sample
    2-3 days of sexual abstinence but not longer than 5 days
  17. what is the effect of prolonged abstinence in sperm collection?
    increased volume and decreased motility
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    • A. Epididymis
    • B. Ductus deferens
    • C. Seminal vesicles
    • D. Prostate gland
    • E. Bulbourethral glands
  19. intervals between collection of sperm sample following a 3-sample test
    2-week interval
  20. storage temp of sperm sample
    37C or RT
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  22. Semen Analysis Parameters
    • AP2CMV
    • Appearance
    • pH
    • Sperm Concentration
    • Sperm Count
    • Sperm Motility
    • Sperm Morphology
    • Volume
    • Viscosity
  23. this type of test may be useful to screen the sperm for WBC
    leukocyte esterase reagent strip test
  24. Red coloration of sperm may be due to
  25. yellow coloration of sperm may be cause by
    • urine contam
    • prolonged abstinence
    • medications
  26. urine affects the sperm motility
    true or false
  27. a fresh semen specimen is clotted and should liquefy within
    30-60 mins after collection
  28. what may be added to the semen if it does not liquefy after 2 hours?
  29. Decreased volume after proper collection may be indicative of
  30. consistency of the fluid and may be related to specimen liquefaction
  31. normal semen is
    acidic or alkaline?
  32. Equation for Total Sperm Count
    Sperm Concentration x Specimen Volume
  33. Process of immobilizing the sperm for specimen count
  34. Diluting fluid for Sperm analysis
    • Sodium Bicarbonate and formalin (Traditional)
    • Saline and distilled water
  35. stain that may be used to aid sperm count in using bright field microscopy
    crystal violet
  36. immature sperm and wbc are termed as
    round cells
  37. amount of leukocytes counted that is associated with infertility
  38. presence of >1 million spermatids/mL indicates
    disruption of spermatogenesis
  39. manner of reporting sperm concentration
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  42. recommended the Neubauer chamber count for Sperm count
  43. amount of semen used for assessing motility
    10ul under 22x22mm cover slip
  44. no. of fields evaluated for sperm motility
    20 High-power fields
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  46. the presence of a high percentage of immobile sperm and clumps of sperm automatically indicate infertility
    True or False
    False, it requires further evaluation to determine sperm viability or the presence of sperm agglutinins
  47. 4 parts of the sperm that is evaluated in morphology
    • head 
    • neckpiece
    • midpiece
    • tail
  48. describe a normal sperm head
    • oval shaped
    • approx 5um long
    • 3um wide
  49. describe the length of sperm tail
    45 um long
  50. poor ovum penetration may be due to
    abnormal head
  51. abnormalities of these affect the motility of sperm
    • neckpiece
    • midpiece
    • tail
  52. part of sperm that is critical to ovum penetration located at the tip of the head
    acrosomal cap
  53. approx size of the acrosomal cap
    • approx half of the head
    • 2/3 of the sperm nucleus
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  55. Thickest part of the sperm tail
  56. surrounds the midpiece that produces the energy required by the tail for motility
    mitochondrial sheath
  57. best stain for Sperm
    papanicolaou stain
  58. how long are air dried slides stable?
    24 hours
  59. number of sperm that should be identified
  60. method of sperm analysis wherein addt'l parameters are done
    Kruger's strict criteria
  61. Equation for counting round cells in Sperm analysis
    Image Upload
  62. it is suspected when a specimen has a normal sperm concentration with markedly decreased motility
    Decreased Sperm Viability
  63. what stain is mixed with semen to evaluate viability?
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  65. in Sperm viability test, which of the sperm (alive or dead) is infiltrated by the dye?
  66. Normal viability of sperm requires ?% living cells
  67. test used to detect presence of fructose in sperm
    Resorcinol Test
  68. normal quantitative level of fructose
    =>13umol per ejaculate
  69. how is quantitative measurement of sperm fructose done?
    spectrophotometric method
  70. what can be done to preserve the fructose content of sperm?
  71. presence of these antibodies is suspected when clumps of sperm are observed during routine semen analysis
    Antisperm Abs
  72. 2 tests to detect presence of antibody-coated sperm
    • mixed agglutination reaction
    • immunobead test
  73. a screening procedure used primarily to detect the presence of IgG abs in semen
    Mixed agglutination reaction
  74. a more specific procedure in that it can be used to detect the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA Abs and demonstrates what area of the sperm the autoAbs are affecting
    Immunobead test
  75. type of beads used in immunobead test
    polyacrylamide beads
  76. 3 microbes most commonly suspected affecting sperm composition
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Mycoplasma hominis
    • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  77. chemicals present in semen that is usually  tested
    • neutral alpha-glucosidase
    • zinc
    • citric acid
    • prostatic acid phosphatase
  78. decreased neutral alpha-glucosidase suggests a disorder of the
  79. Decreased zinc, citrate, and Acid phosphatase indicated a lack of this fluid
    prostatic fluid
  80. determination of this may be used in cases of alleged rape
    • acid phosphatase
    • detection of seminal glycoprotein p30 (more specific)
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  82. the only concern in postvasectomy semen analysis
    presence of spermatozoa
  83. test involved in sperm function tests
    • hamster egg penetration assay
    • cervical mucus penetration test
    • hypo-osmotic swelling test
    • in vitro acrosome reaction
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  85. Maturation of spermatozoa takes place in the:
    A. Sertoli cells
    B. Seminiferous tubules
    C. Epididymis
    D. Seminal vesicles
  86. Enzymes for the coagulation and liquefaction of semen are produced by the:
    A. Seminal vesicles
    B. Bulbourethral glands
    C. Ductus deferens
    D. Prostate gland
  87. The major component of seminal fluid is:
    A. Glucose
    B. Fructose
    C. Acid phosphatase
    D. Citric acid
  88. If the first portion of a semen specimen is not collected,the semen analysis will have an abnormal:
    A. ph
    B. Viscosity
    C. Sperm concentration
    D. Sperm motility
  89. Failure of laboratory personnel to document the time a semen sample is collected primarily affects the interpretationof semen:
    A. Appearance
    B. Volume
    C. ph
    D. Viscosity
  90. Liquefaction of a semen specimen should take place within:
    A. 1 hour
    B. 2 hours
    C. 3 hours
    D. 4 hours
  91. A semen specimen delivered to the laboratory in a condom has a normal sperm count and markedly decreased sperm motility. This is indicative of:
    A. Decreased fructose
    B. Antispermicide in the condom
    C. Increased semen viscosity
    D. Increased semen alkalinity
  92. An increased semen ph may be caused by:
    A. Prostatic infection
    B. Decreased prostatic secretions
    C. Decreased bulbourethral gland secretions
    D. All of the above
  93. Proteolytic enzymes may be added to semen specimens to:
    A. Increase the viscosity
    B. Dilute the specimen
    C. Decrease the viscosity
    D. Neutralize the specimen
  94. The normal sperm concentration is:
    A. Below 20 million per microliter
    B. Above 20 million per milliliter
    C. Below 20 million per milliliter
    D. Above 20 million per microliter
  95. Given the following information, calculate the sperm concentration:
    dilution, 1:20
    sperm counted in five RBC squares on each side of the hemocytometer, 80and 86 volume, 3 mL
    A. 80 million per milliliter
    B. 83 million per milliliter
    C. 86 million per milliliter
    D. 169 million per microliter
  96. dilution, 1:20
    volume, 3 mL

    Using the above information, calculate the sperm concentration when 80 sperm are counted in 1 WBC square and 86 sperm are counted in another WBC square
    A. 83 million per milliliter
    B. 166 million per ejaculate
    C. 16.6 million per milliliter
    D. 50 million per ejaculate
  97. The primary reason to dilute a semen specimen before performing a sperm concentration is to:
    A. Immobilize the sperm
    B. Facilitate the chamber count
    C. Decrease the viscosity
    D. Stain the sperm
  98. When performing a sperm concentration, 60 sperm are counted in the RBC squares on one side of the hemocytometer and 90 sperm are counted in the RBC squares on the other side. The specimen is diluted 1:20. The:
    A. Specimen should be rediluted and counted
    B. Sperm count is 75 million per milliliter
    C. Sperm count is greater than 5 million per milliliter
    D. Sperm concentation is abnormal
  99. Sperm motility evaluations are performed:
    A. Immediately after the specimen is collected
    B. Within 1–2 hours of collection
    C. After 3 hours of incubation
    D. At 6-hour intervals for one day
  100. Sperm motility is evaluated on the basis of:
    A. Speed
    B. Direction
    C. Tail movement
    D. Both A and B
  101. The percentage of sperm showing average motility that is considered normal is:
    A. 25%
    B. 50%
    C. 60%
    D. 75%
  102. All of the following are grading criteria for sperm motility except:
    A. Rapid straight-line movement
    B. Rapid lateral movement
    C. No forward progression
    D. No movement
  103. The purpose of the acrosomal cap is:
    A. Ovum penetration
    B. Protection of the nucleus
    C. Energy for tail movement
    D. Protection of the neckpiece
  104. The sperm part containing a mitochondrial sheath is the:
    A. Head
    B. Neckpiece
    C. Midpiece
    D. Tail
  105. All of the following are associated with sperm motility except the:
    A. Head
    B. Neckpiece
    C. Midpiece
    D. Tail
  106. The morphologic shape of a normal sperm head is:
    A. Round
    B. Tapered
    C. Oval
    D. Amorphous
  107. Normal sperm morphology when using the WHO criteria is:
    A. >30% normal forms
    B. <30% normal forms
    C. >15% abnormal forms
    D. <15% normal forms
  108. Additional parameters measured by Kruger strict morphology include all of the following except:
    A. Viability
    B. Presence of vacuoles
    C. Acrosome size
    D. Tail length
  109. Round cells that are of concern and may be included in sperm counts and morphology analysis are:
    A. Leukocytes
    B. Spermatids
    C. RBCs
    D. Both A and B
  110. If 5 round cells per 100 sperm are counted in a sperm morphology smear and the sperm concentation is 30 million, the concentraton of round cells is:
    A. 150,000
    B. 1.5 million
    C. 300,000
    D. 15 million
  111. Following an abnormal sperm motility test with a normal sperm count, what additional test might be ordered?
    A. Fructose level
    B. Zinc level
    C. Mar test
    D. Eosin-nigrosin stain
  112. Follow-up testing for a low sperm concentration would include testing for:
    A. Antisperm antibodies
    B. Seminal fluid fructose
    C. Sperm viability
    D. Prostatic acid phosphatase
  113. The immunobead test for antisperm antibodies:
    A. Detects the presence of male antibodies
    B. Determines the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgAantibodies
    C. Determines the location of antisperm antibodies
    D. All of the above
  114. Measurement of alpha-glucosidase is performed to detect a disorder of the:
    A. Seminiferous tubules
    B. Epididymis
    C. Prostate gland
    D. Bulbourethral glands
  115. A specimen delivered to the laboratory with a request for prostatic acid phosphatase and glycoprotein p30 was collected to determine:
    A. Prostatic infection
    B. Presence of antisperm antibodies
    C. A possible rape
    D. Successful vasectomy
  116. Following a negative postvasectomy wet preparation, the specimen should be:
    A. Centrifuged and reexamined
    B. Stained and reexamined
    C. Reported as no sperm seen
    D. Both A and B
  117. Standardization of procedures and reference values for semen analysis is primarily provided by the:
    A. Manufacturers of instrumentation
    B. WHO
    C. Manufacturers of control samples
    D. Clinical laboratory improvement amendments
Card Set:
2014-09-29 14:21:40
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