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Definition of social perception
Study of how we form impressions and make inferences about other people
What 3 types of information do we rely on?
How are 4 ways we use nonverbal communication?
-communicate personality traits
-facilitate/modify verbal communication
Which 7 emotions and expressions are thought to be universal?
Is scent a non verbal cue?
When ovulation, testosterone levels were higher
Verbal cues and non verbal communication
Verbal cues have been shown to have attached meanings
When schemas are applied to people,
They are called stereotypes
Schemas and first impressions
Participants watches person take an oral exam. Test taker is rated more intelligent when he started out doing well than poorly
*shows the power of first impressions
Theories that try to investigate the ways that people explain the causes of one's own and other behaviro
2 type of attributions
- -internal attirbutions
- -external attirbutions
How do people decide to make internal vs external attributions? (3)
How people decide to make internal vs external attributions) what is consensus information?
Whether other behave in same way as our actor did
*he sucks at selling today
How people decide to make internal vs external attributions) what is distinctiveness information?
Whether same actor behaves in same way given different stimuli/situations.
Ex) is he always good at selling?
How people decide to make internal vs external attributions) what is consistency information?
Whether the behavior between oura actor and the same stimuli is the same across time/context
*is he always good at selling?"
What is one reason we commit fundamental attribution of error?
Actor observer effects
What is actor oberserve effects?
Actors notice the situation around them and how they re affected by the situation while observers do not.
Study on actor observe effects in attribution ?
2 people had conversation sitting around observers looking at them (2 on one person, 2 at both, 2 on the other person). Observers made more attributions to the dispositions (personality traits) of the person they were facing (he didn't talk bc he is shy). Conversationalists made more situational attributions about themselves (I was talkative bc my partner was quiet, I didn't talk much bc I was nervous about the camera).
Main viewpoint about objective bias
People generally believe that others behavior reflects their personality (disposition)
example of Rosa parks seat
People that sat on Rosa parks seat were highly criticized, often called racist for not showing respect to the seat. In reality, most passengers were not racist, they just didn't see the sign
(attribution) Self serving biases
We make explanations for our successes that credit internal dispositional factors while our explanations for our failures blame external situational factors
*we take credit for positive outcomes and avoid blame for negative outcomes
Self serving biases) better than average effect?
Most of us see ourselves as above average on many dimensions
What 2 purposes do self serving biases in attribution serve?-
-self esteem protecting and maintaining
Are there people that lack self serving biases? (2)
-low self esteem
What is the primary line of thought process with defensive attributions
Good things happens to good people
*if bad things haoppen to good people then psychological tension arises
(defensive attributions) what can result for people who experience negative outcomes
Can result in internal attirbutions
*it is her fault for getting raped,
What is self-handicapping?
- Do something in advance that could explain away any potential faiklure
- *hinder your own performance in advance of a competition or test to have something to blame
Why do we self handicap?
We got to extremes to make external attributions for our failures
*win/win situation bc if they do bad well they have something to blame but if they do well even better
3 things to consider about self handicaaping
-observers can detect self handicapping in others
-observers dislike self handicappers and infer that they do have low ability
-can also increase the probability of failure
Questions from last exam) according to self perception theory, Jessica is friends with Hillary because...
She spends a lot of time with hillary
- *it validates the persons behavior
- Ex) I ate so much perhaps its because I was hungry
Questions from last exam) ben Franklin effect?
Do something nice for someone means you like the person
Questions from last exam) People tend to assume that they see the world as it really is and that anyone who disagrees with them is biased and not eeing the whole picture. They call this phenomenon
*if anyone disagrees with you, they are missing something. You have to enlighten them
Questions from last exam) _________________ accounts for responses when a person has vague or uncertain attitudes, whereas __________ accounts for responses when a person as well-defined and attitudes
Self perception theory; cognitive dissonance theory
*self perception theory= not strong belief so we look at our behavior to validate it
* cognitive dissonance theory= strong held beliefs
Questions from last exam) the ben Franklin effect is evidenced that..
Behavior affects our beliefs
- *I let someone borrow a book, then I must like the person
- *behavior validates our beliefs
Questions from last exam) according to the social cognition approach, people are motivated to...
Make accurate predictions and understand the social world
What's Muhammad Ali effect?
Maybe I'm not smart but I can kick your ass
Study on self serving biases
Students overclaimed their contributions when success occurred bu underclaimed when failure occurred.
Book) social perception
Study of how we form impressions of other people and how we make influences about them
Book) which type of nonverbal communication is the imost important?
Book) what are the 6 major emotional expressions that are universal
*pride also shown to be universal
Book) implicit personality theory
Our ideas about what kinds of personality traits go together
Book) implicit personality theory: which 2 impressions do we usually use for people?
-warmth and competence
Book) definition of attribution theory?
Study of how we infer the causes of other peoples behavior
Book) what is internal attribution?
- explanation that assigns the causes of his behavior internally
- *trait, disposition
Book) what is external attribution?
- Person is behaving this way bc they are influenced
Ex) father is seen shouting at daughter. Using this rationale, it would be daughter is doing something dangerous
Book) what is covariation model?
You will examine multiple instances of behavior occurring at different times and situations
*ask friend for something, they say no. You start thinking about other scenarios to figure out why she said no
Book) consensus information
- How do other people behave toward the same stimulus
- *do others yell at Hannah?
Book) distinctiveness information
How does the actor respond to other stimuli?
*does he yell at other people?
Book) consistency information
- Frequency with which the observed behavior between the actor and same stimulus occurs across time and circumstances
- *does boss yell at Hannah frequently ?
Book) What is a huge error that fundamental attribution error creates?
To dismiss external factors that the person is in bc behavior is more noticeable than situation
Book) what's perceptual salience?
We can't see situation so we ignore it. We pay attention to person we do see though.
*study on groups surrounding 2 speakers
Book) what is bias blind spot?
Tendency to think others are more susceptible to attributional biases than us
Book) definition of defensive attirbutions
explanation for behavior that defend us from feeling of vulnerability and mortality
*belief in just worlds=people get what they deserved
Book) why do people use defensive attributions?
The person does not have to acknowledge that bad things can occur at random times