archaeology - The Mediterranean
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Who are the Hittites
- -group of people of an indo european culture
- - from the land/ region of Hatti
- - capital Hattusa got sacked every 70 years or so. Someone was letting them in! argh!
- -Most powerful king of hittites
- -was able to improve the fallen kingdom and its flawed government. reconquered lost territories and expanded his borders.
- -son of Tudhayliya (founder of hittite kingdom)
- -King of Hittite known for capturing city of Aleppo
- -Known for his sack attack on Babylon
- -when he returned from battle he was assassinated
Battle of Kadesh
- -famous battle between Rameses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittite Empire
- -most thoroughly documented battle
- -both sides claimed victory, but some suspect it to have been a draw
- act as centers of commerce
- energy invested in building great walls and big temples
- citadels has a massive amount of storage room
- Myceneans were a citadel
In greece Who tried to excavate the minoan society in search of the trojan war location
- Empire at sea
- domination of the sea
Two distinct cultures developed in early Greece, the Minoans and the
who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, is probably the most famous Greek poet.
Tells the story of the last year of the Trojan War
After the fall of Mycenaean society what happen to Greek Civilization
It went to a dark ages and almost disappeared.
The main hall or central room of a palace or house, especially of Mycenaean Greece, having a pillared porch and a more or less central
The __________ Age saw the proliferation and preoccupation with
maintaining war chariots.
Chariots are expensive enterprises. in what way can you imagine that they are costly?Does that make this military technology vulnerable?
- Cost in maintenance
- Cost in Material
- Cost in Storage
- Cost in training charioteers
It compliments military technology by providing more power to their attack levels
what made bronze age citadel collapse
- lots of theories
Status quo -collapse of bronze age rise of dark ages
eruption of thera
tremendous explosion that set the entire ancient Mediterranean onto a different course
people dont just disappear. they just stop doing what they are doing. could be just a shift of doing new things
____Bc emergent of material culture
artistic representation of greater scale
greek art resembled ____ culture using the same ratios. later started experimenting with human anatomy and weight measues
what did greeks focus on with their sculptures compared to egyptians
- focused on the face and geometric features
- focused on ideal features developing the golden ratio
- vessels painted were vases that were death markers
early classical archaeology was ___figure painting.
about ____ bc greece reversed black figure to ____ figure painting
greeks viewed themselves as ____. greeks were far from unified
greeks found in western turkey are called_____ greeks
ionians greeks developed new agriculture: orchard farming, olives and wine.
this took a lot of time. what did they do to try and protect this?
engaged in pitched battles out of the city to not jeapordize their investment
most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier warfare
hoplite warfare characteristics
- group formation called a phalanx
- armed with sheilds and spears
- stand close together with sheilds blocking each other
- a big pushing match
- extremely organized
- effective against archery bc of their sheilds
who is darius and his successor? what did they do?
Darius and his son Xerxes were associated with the Persian Wars.
had a fleet but marched it instead of putting them on a fleet
Where did the Battle of Marathon take place?
plain of marathon
What happened during the Battle of Marathon?
- 490 BCE
- people of Athens hid in the hills while the Persians showed up on the plain.
- Athenians then waited for the Persians to load their best soldiers and then the Athenians attacked.
- persians completely run over by greeks at marathon
Who won the Battle of Thermopylae?
- spartan king took 300 spartans despite holy day superstition
What happened during the Battle of Thermopylae?
Greeks tried to block the Persians at Thermopylae, but Persians found a path around the mountains that would surround the Greeks.
greeks won naval battle against persian fleet
battle of salamis (strait)
Alexander the great combined ___- warfare with ____
- calvary (to attack from rear and threaten the phalanx)
why was Alexander the great forced to stop and make his capital in Persia
his soldiers were fed up and tired waiting for their promised land and wealth
battle of platea
- greeks destroyed persian army
- victory of ages because greeks stared down the biggest empire and won twice
- after this battle Persians put into place some policies
- greeks had to rebuild athens thus celebrating in their victory by building the parthenon.
- war between athens and sparta
- paved the way for Macedonia to take over greece
Why was the Dark Age of Greece considered dark?
period of social chaos
athens tyrant at the end of the 6th century?
Hippias (and hipparchus)
what is a tyrant?
ruler who uses power oppressively or unjustly.
what is a tyrannicide?
killing of a tyrant for the common good
- made romanctic advances to harmodius who in turn got his lover Aristogeiton to murder Hipparchus
hermodius and aristogeiton
- killed hipparchus
- were praised as tyrannicides
- statue was built of them after their death for being civic heros
- tyrant, strict bc of his brother, hipparchus's murder
- tyranny was overthrown around 509
- league made by Athens and other Greek city states against Persia at first, but eventually turned against Sparta during the Peloponnesian war.
- athens took all revenue from league to build acropolis that led to peloponnesian war that lasted 30 years.
Philip II of Macedonia
- 4th century BC head of Macedonian empire
- succeeded by his son Alexander the great
- formed a more skilled military by combining hoplite army and professional army
- created more effective weaponry
- dominated most of greeks city-states
- was assasinated
Alexander the great
- son of philip II
- extremely ambitious
- fights greeks
- sacks thebes
- conquers persian empire
- combined hoplite warfare with Calvary
- great military leader bc he was able to manage resources to keep his military going for a decade
- his soldiers got fed up waiting for their promised land and wealth, which forced Alexander to stop and make his capital in Persia.
- dies after this stop leaving a period of uncertainty
- he had several powerful generals that couldnt agree on who takes over. So they set up their own empires and started a huge war aainst each other creating the Hellenistic period.
- war against alexander the greats powerful generals after his death
- as this went on, a city in the west was rising quietly: ROME.
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