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What are the three functional levels of the nervous system?
- 1. Sensory Level
- 2. Integrative Level
- 3. Motor Level
This level of the nervous system includes receptors and their related structures.
This level of the Nervous System is the "decision" maker. It includes the brain and spinal cord.
This level of the Nervous System includes muscle tissue and glands.
What is the functional cell of the Nervous system?
The _____ provides support and protection for the cells of the nervous system.
How are Neurons classified?
- 1. By structure
- 2. By function
- 3. By direction of transmission
What are the different ways a neuron is classified by structure?
- 1. Unipolar
- 2. Bipolar
- 3. Multipolar
What are the different ways in which a neuron is classified by function?
- 1. Sensory Neurons
- 2. Motor Neurons
- 3. Association (integrative) neurons
What are the different ways in which a neuron is classified by the direction of transmission?
- 1. Afferent
- 2. Efferent
- 3. Interneuron
Which type of Neuron contains only one axon?
Which type of neuron contains two axons?
Where can Bipolar neurons be located?
- 1. retina of the eye
- 2. inner ear
- 3. olfactory epithelium
This type of neuron has multiple axons.
This type of neuron control different sense sensations.
This type of neurons controls movement.
This type of neuron controls both senses and movement.
Integrative (association) neurons
This type of neuron transmits signals to the brain.
This type of neuron transmits signals away from the brain.
This type of neuron transmits signals between different neurons in the spinal cord.
All sensory neurons are what kind of neurons based on the direction of transmission?
A bundle of axons outside the brain and spinal cord.
A bundle of axons inside the brain and spinal cord
A cluster of cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord.
A cluster of cell bodies inside the brain and spinal cord.
A unique arrangement of ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum. They are the most efficient protein producing structure in any cell.
The "lines" that come off of the main body of a neuron.
When looking at a neuron, where are the nissl bodies located?
They are the small dark spots throughout the cell
When looking at a neuron, where is the Neuroplasm located?
It is the background material inside of the neuron
When looking at a neuron, where are the neurofibrils located?
They are the faint lines located in the neuroplasm
When looking at a neuron, where is the nucleus located?
It is the dark mass in the center of the neuron
When looking at a neuron, where is the neuroglia located?
It is outside the actual neuron. It is the background wispy stuff. It is also called the astrocyte.
When looking at a nerve, where is the Epineurium located?
It is the outer membrane surrounding the nerve.
When looking at a nerve, where is the Perineum located?
It is the membrane located just under the epineurium. It surrounds individual fascicles.
A single bundle of axons in a nerve.
When looking at a nerve, where is the Endoneurium located?
It surrounds each individual myelin sheath and axon.
When looking at a nerve, where are the myelin sheaths located?
they are the white "doughnut"-like circles around the individual black dots (axons).
When looking at a nerve, where are the axons located?
The axons are the numerous black dots on the slide.
What cells make up the myelin sheaths in a nerve?
What are the two types of nerves?
- 1. Cranial Nerves
- 2. Spinal Nerves
These nerves extend laterally from the base of the brain. There are twelve pairs; they are always labeled with roman numerals (I-XII).
These nerves extend laterally from the spinal cord. There are thirty-one pairs. They are all mixed nerves.
What is the order of Spinal nerves from upper most to lower most?
- Cervical Nerves (C1-C8): 8 pairs
- Thoracic Nerves (T1-T12): 12 pairs
- Lumbar Nerves (L1-L5): 5 pairs
- Sacral Nerves (S1-S5): 5 pairs
- Coccygeal Nerves (Co1): 1 pair
What is the order of the Cranial Nerves? Which is smallest? Which is largest?
- I. Olfactory
- II. Optic
- III. Occulomotor
- IV. Trochlear
- V. Trigeminal
- VI. Abducens
- VII. Facial
- VIII. Vestibulocochlear
- IX. Glossopharyngeal
- X. Vagus
- XI. Spinal Accessory
- XII. Hypoglossal
What pneumonic device can be used to help remember the order of the Cranial nerves?
"Old, Opticians, Occupy, Troubled, Times, Apparently, Facing, Very, Greedy, Virtues, 'Specially, Hips"
In order, are the cranial nerves Sensory, Motor, or Both?
- I. Sensory
- II. Sensory
- III. Motor
- IV. Motor
- V. Both
- VI. Motor
- VII. Both
- VIII. Sensory
- IX. Both
- X. Both
- XI. Motor
- XII. Motor
What pneumonic device can be used to help remember the function of the cranial nerves in order?
"Some, Say, Marilyn, Monroe, But, My, Brother, Says, Bridgette, Bardot, Mmmm, Mmmm."
What function does the Olfactory nerve have?
What function does the Optic nerve have?
What function does the Occulomotor nerve have?
- 1. Eyeball Movement
- 2. Pupil accomodation
What function does the Trochlear nerve have?
What function does the Trigeminal nerve have?
- 1. Head
- 2. Face
- 3. Teeth
- - chewing muscles (mandibles)
What function does the Abducens nerve have?
What function does the Facial nerve have?
- - taste anterior 2/3 tongue
- - Facial expression and saliva secretion
What function does the Vestibulocochlear nerve have?
Equilibrium (vestibular branch) and hearing (cochlear branch)
What function does the Glossopharyngeal nerve have?
- - Taste (posterior 1/3 tongue)
- - Pharynx (swallowing) and saliva secretion
What function does the Vagus nerve have?
Sensations from and movements of visceral organs
What function does the Spinal Accessory nerve have?
Larynx (voice production) and movements of the neck and shoulder
What function does the Hypoglossal nerve have?
This region of the cerebrum is, in general, lie anterior to the central sulcus.
This area of the Motor Region of the cerebrum controls the voluntary, skilled (precise) contractions of the skeletal muscles.
Primary Motor Cortex
This area of the Motor Region of the cerebrum is a memory "storage area". It controls the learned, skilled motor activities that are repetitious or patterned in nature (such as pedaling a bike, playing piano, etc). This area has also been found to be involved in planning our voluntary muscle contractions.
This area of the Motor Region of the cerebrum Controls voluntary eye movements.
Frontal Eye Field
This area of the Motor Region of the cerebrum is one of two cerebral areas related to speech. Usually it is localized in only one hemisphere (the left). It is a motor speech area that controls the contractions of the skeletal muscles involved in producing speech. It is also involved in our ability to plan speech.
This region of the cerebrum, in general, is where most sensory functions are associated. They lie posterior to the Central Sulcus. Each sense has two area associated with it: a Primary Area that makes us consciously aware of what sense we are experiencing, and an Association Area that precisely identifies the sensation.
Sensory Region of the Cerebrum
The area of the sensory organ that senses sight.
The area of the sensory organ that senses Hearing.
The area of the sensory organ that senses Taste.
The area of the sensory organ that senses All general body sensations.
These areas are responsible for out higher thought processes and "decision"- making abilities. Unlike the motor and sensory areas, this area is scattered throughout the cerebrum.
This is the most complex region of our brain. It is involved with our intelligence, our complex learning abilities, our recall abilities, and our personality.
This is another speech area. It is involved in our ability to send out unfamiliar words and our ability to understand the written and spoken word.
This area is also called the Gnostic ("all knowing") area. This region of the cerebrum receives input from all other sensory areas of the brain at the same time. From these inputs, this area will form a single unifying thought regarding all of these sensory inputs.
General Interpretative Area
The myelin sheath around the axons in White matter is formed by _____.
The outermost membrane of the spinal cord is called the _____. The Central Membrane of the spinal cord is called the _____. The innermost membrane of the spinal cord is called the _____.
Dura Mater; Arachnoid Mater; Pia Mater
This ramus is the nerve supply for the skin and muscles of the posterior trunk.
This ramus is the nerve supply for the entire upper and lower extremities. It is also the nerve supply for the anterior and lateral trunk. They enter plexuses (excluding T2-T11).
The Ventral Rami that don't enter plexuses are called _____.
These Rami are the nerve supply for visceral organs. They are part of the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system.
This Ramus is the nerve supply for vertebrae, connective tissue, blood vessels, and blood vessels around the spinal column.
A branch of the spinal nerve
A region of complex branching and intermingling of adjacent ventral rami
What are the names of the four different Rami, from uppermost to lowermost, and what do they"control"
- 1. cervical plexus
- - Part of the face, neck, and top of the shoulders
- 2. Brachial plexus
- - Entire upper extremity
- 3. Lumbar plexus
- - Anterior and Lateral trunk, external reproductive organs, and the top portion of the thigh
- 4. Sacral plexus
- - Lower extremity, butt, and perineum
_____ are bundles of axons inside the brain and spinal cord.
In the spinal cord, tracts are associated with what type of material? Here they form ascending or descending pathways running up and down the cord.
Ascending tracts are those that transmit what type of information? What direction does this information flow?
Sensory information; from the spinal cord UP to the brain
Descending tracts are those that transmit what type of information? What direction does this information flow?
Motor Information; from the brain DOWN the spinal cord
What are the names of the ascending tracts?
- 1. Fasciculus Cuneatus
- 2. Fasciculus gracilis
- 3. Posterior Spinocerebellar
- 4. Anterior Spinocerebellar
- 5. Lateral Spinothalamic
- 6. Anterior Spinothalamic
What are the names of the descending tracts?
- 1. Lateral Corticospinal
- 2. Anterior Corticospinal
- 3. Tectospinal
- 4. Vestibulospinal
- 5. Reticulospinal
- 6. Rubrospinal
This ascending tract moves the sensory input from general receptors of the skin and proprioceptors from the neck, upper limbs, and upper trunk regions. The sensations are associated with discriminative touch, pressure, and body sense.
This ascending tract moves sensory input from general receptors of the skin and proprioceptors from the lower limbs and inferior trunk regions. These sensations are also associated with discriminative touch, pressure, and body sense.
This ascending tract moves sensory input associated with subconscious proprioceptors from the trunk and lower limb proprioceptors to the cerebellum.
Posterior and Anterior spinocerebellar
This ascending tract moves sensory input related to pain and temperature.
This ascending tract moves sensory input related to crude, non-discriminative touch and pressure.
This descending tract is a voluntary motor tract. It moves motor output from the cerebrum to the spinal cord motor neurons that activate skeletal muscle.
Lateral and Anterior Corticospinal
This descending tract moves motor output from mesencephalon associated with the coordinated movement of the head and eyes toward visual targets.
This descending tract moves motor output related to maintaining balance while standing or moving. The motor impulses are associated with maintaining muscle tone and activating limb and trunk extensor muscles, as well as muscles that move the head.
This descending tract moves motor output associated with visceral activities and maintaining muscle tone. It is also believed to control most of our unskilled movements.
Reticulospinal (lateral and medial)
This descending tract is a poorly understood tract in humans (may be vestigial). This tract is believed to transmit motor output related to maintaining muscle tone of distal limb flexor muscles.
Liquid connective tissue
What two portions make up blood? What are their percentages?
- 1. Liquid portion (55%)- aka: Plasma
- 2. Solid portion (45%)- aka: formed elements
Blood Plasma (liquid portions of blood) are composed of three things. What are they and how much of the blood plasma do they make up?
- 1. Water (92%)
- 2. Plasma proteins (7%)
- 3. Dissolved solutes (1%)
What are the plasma proteins?
- 1. Albumins
- 2. Globulins
- 3. Fibrinogens
This plasma protein is the most abundant. It provides Viscosity and osmotic pressure
This plasma protein is the most diverse. It is responsible for transport and for forming antibodies
This plasma protein is the least abundant. It is the clotting protein.
What are the Formed Elements found in blood?
- 1. Erythrocytes
- 2. Leukocytes
- 3. Platelets
This formed element is anucleate, biconcave discs. What are the units/mm3? What is their circulating lifespan? What is their function?
- Name: Eryhtrocytes
- Units/mm3: Males- 5.4 million Females- 4.8 million
- Lifespan: 120 days
- Function: Transport O2 and some CO2
What removes old erythrocytes from the blood stream?
kupffer cells from the liver/spleen
This formed element is non-cellular fragments of megametakaryoblasts. What is the units/mm3? What is their circulating lifespan? What is their function?
- Name: Platelets
- Units/mm3: 200,000 to 400,000
- Lifespan: 9 days
- Function: Blood clotting
This formed element is large, amoeboid nucleated cells. What is the units/mm3? What is their circulating lifespan? What is their function?
- Name: Leukocytes
- Units/mm3: 5,000 to 9,000
- Lifespan: Varies
- Function: Protection
What are the two groups of Leukocytes, and what are the types located in each group?
- 1. Granular Leukocytes
- - Neutrophils
- - Eosinophils
- - Basophils
- 2. Agranular Leukocytes
- - Monocytes
- - Lymphocytes
This type of Leukocyte is highly phagocytic. It has a neutral stain and has a nucleus that is multi-lobed (3 or more). What percentage of all leukocytes are these?
This type of Leukocyte is effective against parasitic worms and dampens allergic reactions (antihistamines). They stain red (acidic) and have a figure "8" nucleus pushed off to the side with red/pink spots in the cytoplasm. What percentage of all leukocytes are these?
This type of Leukocyte produces allergic reactions (histamines). They stain blue (basic). They have a figure "8" shaped nucleus with blue spots in the cytoplasm (this type won't be on the practical). What percentage of all leukocytes are these?
Basophils (< or = 1%)
This type of Leukocyte are aggressive phagocytes. They are more effective than Neutrophils and are found to increase during chronic infections. They have a horseshoe shaped nucleus. They are very large. What percentage of all leukocytes are these?
This type of Leukocyte are responsible for antibody production and immunity. The nucleus of these cells takes up most of the cellular space. What percentage of all leukocytes are these?
What are the blood types based on ABO typing? Rh typing?
- ABO typing:
- 1. A
- 2. B
- 3. AB
- 4. O
- Rh typing:
- 1. +
- 2. -
What agglutinogen is present in type A blood? What antibody is present in the plasma?
What agglutinogen is present in type B blood? What antibody is present in the plasma?
What agglutinogen is present in type AB blood? What antibody is present in the plasma?
A and B; no antibodies
What agglutinogen is present in type O blood? What antibody is present in the plasma?
Neither A or B; both anti-A and anti-B
This blood type is referred to as the universal recipient.
This blood type is referred to as the universal donor.
The clumping of cells.
On blood typing cards, if blood clumps on the anti-A circle is is what blood type?
On blood typing cards, if blood clumps on the anti-B circle is is what blood type?
On blood typing cards, if blood clumps on the anti-A and anti-B circle is is what blood type?
On blood typing cards, if blood clumps on neither the anti-A or anti-B circle is is what blood type?
On blood typing cards, if blood clumps on the anti-D circle is is what blood type?
The % of red blood cells in a given sample of blood
How do you calculate Hematocrit? What is normal for Males? Females? If an individual falls below these levels they are considered to be _____. If an individual falls above these levels they are considered to be _____.
- The total of red blood cells (in mm) divided by the total of the blood (in mm) multiplied by 100.
- 40-54% in males; 37-47% in females
This type of circulation carries gases to the lungs. The right side is Oxygen poor.
What path does Pulmonary Circulation follow, starting at the inferior and superior vena cava?
Inferior and Superior Vena Cave --> Right Atrium --> Right Ventricle --> Pulmonary Trunk --> Right and Left Pulmonary arteries --> Lobar Arteries (of the left and right lung) --> Capillaries --> Right and Left Pulmonary Veins --> Left Atrium --> Left Ventricle --> Aortic Arch
When looking at a diagram, the left side of the heart is on the _____ side of the page.
This type of circulation is associated with the liver and is all venous.
Hepatic Portal Circulation
This type of circulation bypasses the lungs, liver, and kidneys.
This vessel bypasses the Liver in fetal circulation.
This bypasses the Right Ventricle and Pulmonary Circulation is Fetal Circulation.
Foramen Ovale and Ductus Arteriosus
How does Fetal circulation bypass the Respiratory circulation and right ventricle. Trace the blood flow.
Inferior Vena Cava --> Right Atrium --> most to Left Atrium through the foramen Ovale. Some goes to the Right Ventricle and enters the Pulmonary Trunk. This then goes through the Ductus Arteriosus to the aorta.
What do the following items in the Fetus become as a Newborn:
3. Umbilical Vein
4. Ductus Venosus
5. Foramen Ovale
6. Ductus Arteriosus
7. Umbilical Arteries
- 1. Tossed away
- 2. Most tossed away, some absorbed
- 3. Ligamentum teres
- 4. Ligamentum venosum
- 5. Fossa ovalis
- 6. Ligamentum arteriosum
- 7. Medial umbilical ligaments
Previously, the following items in a Newborn were what in the Fetus:
1. These were Tossed away
2. Most of these were tossed away, some were absorbed
3. Ligamentum teres
4. Ligamentum venosum
5. Fossa ovalis
6. Ligamentum arteriosum
7. Medial umbilical ligaments
- 1. Placenta
- 2. Umbilical
- 3. Umbilical Vein
- 4. Ductus Venosus
- 5. Foramen Ovale
- 6. Ductus Arteriosus
- 7. Umbilical Arteries
What is the function of the Cerebral Arterial Circle?
- 1. Reroute blood around blockages
- 2. Equalizes blood pressure between the Left and Right side of the brain
- 3. Unites blood flow from the front of the brain to the back of the brain
This type of circulation is located in the brain and is all arterial
Cerebral Arterial Circle