Clin Path- White Blood Cells.txt

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  1. In carnivores, ________ are the most numerous leukocytes.
  2. In horses, the most numerous leukocytes are...
    neutrophils and lymphocytes
  3. In ruminants, the most numerous leukocytes are...
  4. Dogs and pigs get intense _______ with inflammation; this response is less intense in cats and horses.
  5. Cattle get ________ with acute inflammation.
  6. Non-pathologic leukocytosis can be caused by...
    physiologic (epinephrine) or steroids (stress)
  7. Pathologic leukocytosis can be caused by...
    inflammation, leukemia
  8. The proliferating pool for neutrophils contains...
    myeloblasts, promyelocytes (aka. progranulocytes), and myelocytes
  9. The maturation and storage pool for neutrophils contains...
    metamyelocytes, band neutrophils and segmented neutrophils
  10. With increased demand, less mature neutrophils (__________) are released, and this response is known as ________.
    band neutrophils; left shift
  11. The circulating granulocytes pool contains...
    cells within the large vessel (this is what is sampled with a CBC)
  12. The marginating granulocyte pool includes...
    cell that are along the walls of the vessel, ready to move into the tissues
  13. The tissue granulocyte pool includes...
    neutrophils that will not re-enter circulation
  14. Neutrophils function in the _____________; they are activated by __________ and serve the purpose to...
    early stages of inflammation; inflammatory mediators; phagocytize and kill bacteria
  15. During neutrophil phagocytosis, adherence of bacteria to the neutrophil surface is facilitated by...
    opsonization with Ab and complement
  16. During neutrophil phagocytosis, ingestion occurs by....
    invagination of the cell membrane and formation of phagosomes
  17. During neutrophil phagocytosis, phagosomes fuse with _________ to form ________, causing...
    primary granules; the phagolysosome; granule contents to be released into the phagolysosome.
  18. During neutrophil phagocytosis, the bacteria in the phagolysosome is killed and digested by ___________ and the contents are released by _________.
    lysosome contents; exocytosis
  19. Energy for neutrophil phagocytosis comes from _______, which is an advantage because...
    glycolysis (anaerobic); cells can function under low partial pressure of oxygen in an abscess or necrotic tissue
  20. Oxygen dependent mechanisms of antimicrobial activity in neutrophils is known as ________.
    respiratory burst
  21. Describe the four steps of respiratory burst in neutrophils.
    • 1. NADPH oxidase reduces molecular oxygen to superoxide anion
    • 2. Superoxide dismutase generates H2O2 and OH- from superoxide anion
    • 3. Meyloperoxidase converts H2O2 and Cl to hypochlorous acid
    • 4. Hypochlorous acid and additional generation of singlet O2 are toxic to microbes by damaging proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
  22. What are the 3 mechanisms of oxygen independent antimicrobicidal activity in neutrophils?
    • 1. cationic proteins and enzymes hydrolyze bacterial coating
    • 2. Defensins form pores in the cell membrane of microorganisms
    • 3. Lactoferrin binds iron
  23. As a neutrophil response to inflammatory stimuli, there is increased production of ______ and ________cytokines; there is a release of ________ from the _______; and there is a release of ________.
    G-CSF and IL-6; maturing cells from the storage pool; less mature forms (bands)
  24. Toxic changes is a descriptor used in ________.
  25. A toxic change in the cytoplasm of a neutrophil that includes blue cytoplasmic inclusions that increase with marked inflammation.
    Döhle bodies
  26. A toxic change in the cytoplasm of neutrophils that is when autophagocytic or phagocytic vacuoles cause a loss of membrane integrity; this may also be an artifact of prolonged storage in EDTA.
    Cytoplasmic vacuolation
  27. A toxic change in the cytoplasm of neutrophils that occurs from retained ribosomes.
    cytoplasmic basophilia
  28. A toxic change in the cytoplasm of neutrophils that involves the primary granules and is indicative of lysosomal storage disease.
    Toxic granulation
  29. Degenerate neutrophils is a term used in __________..
  30. Degenerate changes in neutrophils occurs in response to...
    bacterial toxins or if outside body
  31. Four characteristics of degenerate neutrophils.
    swelling of nucleus, smudges nuclear borders, loss of chromatin pattern, vacuolization of cytoplasm
  32. What are the 4 mechanisms of neutrophilia?
    increased release from BM, increased production, shift from margination to circulating pool, decreased migration into tissues
  33. A regenerative left shift is indicated by...
    increased numbers of immature cells, mature cells > immature cells, BM response
  34. A degenerative left shift is indicated by...
    immature cells > segmented neutrophils, usually decreased or normal WBC, indicates depletion of BM storage pool, poor prognosis
  35. In a bovine leukocyte response, there is normally a lower _____________ and ____________.
    neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio; proliferative capacity
  36. In a bovine leukocyte response, the ___________ is depleted, while the __________________ is slow.
    marrow reserve; marrow hyperplastic response
  37. In a bovine leukocyte response to acute inflammation,
    the first 6-24 hours is indicated by ___________
    after the first 24 hours, you will find ...
    in 3-4 days you will find...
    • leukopenia;
    • leukopenia, neutropenia with or without a degenerative left shift;
    • normal or mild leukocytosis with a neutrophilia and a left shift
  38. In a bovine leukocyte response to chronic inflammation, you may find...
    normal or mild neutrophilia
  39. What are the 3 mechanisms of neutropenia?
    shift from circulating to marginating pool, increase migration of cells into the tissues, decreased production or release from BM
  40. What are 5 causes of neutropenia?
    overwhelming inflammation/infection, increased margination due to an endotoxin (large animals), damage to the BM by viruses, hormones drugs, neoplasia, BM disease, immune mediated in dogs, or idiopathic
  41. The specific growth factor for eosinophils.
  42. Eosinophils are found distributed in...
    epithelial surfaces in GI tract, subcutis, lungs, repro tract
  43. Causes of eosinophilia. (5)
    (3 W's- worms, wheezes, and weird diseases) hypersensitivity and immune-mediated diseases (allergies, asthma), parasitism, recovery phase of acute infection, Addison's disease, Neoplasms (mast cell tumors)
  44. Causes of eosinopenia. (2)
    steroid response, acute inflammation
  45. Causes of basophilia. (3)
    heartworm in dogs, allergic reactions, mast cell tumor
  46. Main growth factors of mast cells. (2)
    IL-3 and SCF
  47. Causes of mastocythemia. (4)
    inflammation, necrosis, marked regenerative anemia, mast cell tumors
  48. Causes of lymphocytosis (<20 x 10^9/L). (3)
    physiologic/ epinephrine response (transient, excitement), antigenic stimulation, hypoadrenocorticism
  49. Causes of lymphocytosis (>20 x 10^9/L). (2)
    some infectious diseases, neoplasia
  50. Causes of lymphopenia. (4)
    corticosteroids (steroid leukogram), acute bacterial/viral diseases, depletion/loss, congenital immunodeficiency diseases
  51. Main growth factors for monocytes. (2)
  52. Causes of monocytosis. (2)
    acute or chronic inflammation, corticosteroid response-dog
  53. Epinephrine response is characterized by the following characteristics. (5)
    mature neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, +/- increased PCV, +/- thrombocytosis, transient
  54. Corticosteroid response has the following characteristics. (4)
    (Stress response) mature neutrophilia, monocytosis, eosinopenia, lymphopenia
  55. Inflammation response has the following characteristics. (5)
    neutrophilia (with left shift if intense inflammation), +/- toxic changes in neutrophils, +/- monocytosis, +/- reactive lymphocytes, +/- lymphocytosis
  56. Endotoxin response has the following characteristics.(2)
    Acute neutropenia, rebound neutrophilia
  57. In dogs, _____________ are a good indication of inflammation.
    increases in neutrophils
  58. In cats, __________ indicate inflammation.
    increases in neutrophils
  59. In cattle, acute inflammatory disease/infection result in...
    rapid drop in WBCs and early neutropenia with a degenerative left shift
  60. In cattle, by day 4 of an inflammatory disease/infection results in...
    increased production of neutrophils (rebound neutrophilia)
  61. In horses, you usually see mature neutrophilia with lymphopenia with __________.
    inflammatory disease
  62. Guinea pigs have diffuse red inclusions in lymphocytes, called ______.
    Kurloff bodies
  63. In rabbits and Guinea pigs, neutrophils are called _________, when...
    heterophils; granules stain strong pink
  64. Describe the combination response for a stress and inflammation leukogram. (5)
    neutrophilia, left shift, monocytosis, lymphopenia, +/- toxic changes
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Clin Path- White Blood Cells.txt
2014-09-30 01:00:57
vet med
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