us history early presidents study guide.txt

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tor
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us history early presidents study guide.txt
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us history early presidents (1-4)
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  1. HAMILTON'S ECONOMIC PLAN
    A plan to keep the nation unified as the North and South developed different economies. President Madison presented this plan to Congress, hoping to create a strong, unified economy so that the nation would be self sufficient. His plan consisted of DEVELOPING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND OTHER INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, ESTABLISHING A PROTECTIVE TARIFF, and RESURRECTING THE NATIONAL BANK (which was developed under Washington and then reduced under Jefferson). Henry Clay dubbed it. Designed so that the industrial North would trade manufactured goods with the South while the South would transfer back agrarian products.
  2. JAY'S TREATY
    The chief of justice in the Supreme Court went to London to negotiate a treaty with Britain over WHO WOULD CONTROL TERRITORIES WEST OF THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, REMOVAL OF BRITISH SOLDIERS FROM AMERICA, PAYMENT FOR IMPRESSED SHIPS, AND U.S. NEUTRALITY. The only positive result was the removal of British soldiers. The British continued their fur trade on the American side of the U.S.
  3. VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS
    Jefferson and James Madison, the main Democratic-Republican leaders, saw the Alien and Sedition Acts appointed under Federalist John Adams as a serious misue of power. Madison drew up a list of grievances from Virginia while Jefferson drew from Kentucky. These asserted the principle of NULLIFICATION - THAT THE STATES HAD THE RIGHT TO NULLIFY ANY ACT OF CONGRESS THAT THEY DEEMED UNCONSTITUTIONAL. Virginia and Kentucky saw the Alien and Sedition acts as violations of the First Amendment and nullified them.
  4. MARBURY V. MADISON
    Affirmed the principle of JUDICIARY REVIEW - THE ABILITY OF THE SUPREME COURT TO DECLARE AN ACT OF CONGRESS UNCONSTITUTIONAL. Before Thomas Jefferson's inauguration, John Adams appointed Marbury to be a justice. However, James Madison refused to give him his papers or his position, so Marbury sued. The Supreme Court declared that Marbury would not receive the position because John Adams was no longer president. Overseen by JOHN MARSHALL, this led to JUDICIAL REVIEW.
  5. LEWIS AND CLARK
    An expedition commissioned by President Jefferson to explore the West from Missouri to the Pacific Ocean. The explorers were led by Sacajawea. They were looking for suitable farm land.
  6. BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
    General Andrew Jackson defeated a superior British force after the War of 1812 was already over.
  7. THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
    A plan to keep the nation unified as the North and South developed different economies. President Madison presented this plan to Congress, hoping to create a strong, unified economy so that the nation would be self sufficient. His plan consisted of DEVELOPING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND OTHER INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, ESTABLISHING A PROTECTIVE TARIFF, and RESURRECTING THE NATIONAL BANK (which was developed under Washington and then reduced under Jefferson). Henry Clay dubbed it. Designed so that the industrial North would trade manufactured goods with the South while the South would transfer back agrarian products.
  8. "ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS"
    A term used to describe James Monroe's term. America bought Florida from Spain and the Monroe Doctrine was put into place.
  9. DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN PARTY
    Result of the split in Washington's cabinet relating to the power and size of the federeal govenerment in relation to state and local governments. Supported Jefferson's vision of STRONG STATE GOVERNMENTS, AGRARIAN GROWTH, and POWER TO THE COMMON PEOPLE. Aligned with France.
  10. FEDERALISTS PARTY
    Result of the split in Washington's cabinet relating to the power and size of the federal govenerment in relation to state and local governments. Supported Hamilton's vision of STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRAIL GROWTH, and POWER TO THE MINORITIES. Aligned with England.
  11. ERIE CANAL
    Reduced shipping costs greatly. Increased transportation of passengers and freight across Michigan. Made New York City into a popular port. Gave good-paying jobs to immigrants and unemployed peoples.
  12. WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS
    Urged the United States to not make foreign alliances and to not let the country be torn apart by political parties.
  13. GEORGE WASHINGTON
    Served as the president of the Philadelphia Convention and later elected to the chief executive's job in the first federal government. Unanimously put into office with 100% of the vote. Served first term as DOMESTIC POLICY, and the second as FOREIGN POLICY. Created the Cabinet. Came back to serve as lieutenant general and commander in chief of the armies after retiring.
  14. JOHN MARSHALL
    Oversaw Marbury v. Madison. Created JUDICIAL REVIEW. Involved in the XYZ Affairs.
  15. BANK OF THE U.S.
    Hamilton proposes NATIONAL DEBT to promote unity through collective issues. Madison and Jefferson opposed it because it favored the rich and was not directly mentioned in the Constitution. Hamilton argued that the NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE gave congress "implied powers". Jefferson later went back on his opinion and used the national bank.
  16. XYZ AFFAIRS
    The French government believed that the Jay Treaty was a violation to the French-American alliance and began to impress England-bound American ships. Adams sent a delegation to France to negotiate a solution. French officials demanded American money and the delegators left highly offended.
  17. ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
    The ALIEN ENEMIES ACT allowed Adams to kick out suspicious French immigrants. The NATURALIZATION ACT enforced that a U.S. resident had to live in the U.S. for 14 years to gain citizenship and was put into place to lessen immigrants. The SEDITION ACT made it illegal to speak out against the government, restricting the First Amendment and allowing Adams to jail Democratic-Republicans. A result of the XYZ Affairs and the heavy criticism laid on Adams while he was in office. These were enforced by Federalist judges.
  18. LOUISIANA PURCHASE
    Spain returned midcontinent land to France, alarming Jefferson. He didn't want the French to have a heavy influence on America, so Jefferson bought the land from the French under IMPLIED POWERS, which he originally didn't support. He didn't believe it was Constitutional.
  19. EMBARGO ACT
    Jefferson put this into place to prevent trade with France and England while they were warring in Europe. This actually negatively affected the United States economy because there was no one to trade with, even though it was designed to hurt the European powers and force them to honor American neutrality.
  20. TREATY OF GHENT
    Ended the War of 1812. Took British soldiers off of American land and put them on French territory.
  21. MONROE DOCTRINE
    Declared that the Western Hemisphere was to be untouched by European powers - specifically Russia. Similarly, America would stay out of European affairs.
  22. 12TH AMENDMENT
    Changed the election system so that electors would cast separate ballots fo president and vice-president.
  23. COTTON GIN
    Invented by Eli Whitney and revolutionized cotton as a cash-crop.
  24. ANDREW JACKSON
    Led the Battle of New Orleans and later becomes president.
  25. JOHN ADAMS
    President that succeeded Washington. In office for the XYZ Affairs and responsible for the midnight appointments. Also responsible for the ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS.
  26. THOMAS JEFFERSON
    Founded the Democratic-Republican party in Washington's cabinet. Favored STRONG STATE GOVERNMENTS, AGRARIAN GROWTH, and POWER TO THE COMMON PEOPLE. Aligned with France. A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST who opposed the implied powers of the Constitution but later used them to reason his buying of the Louisiana Purchase.
  27. JAMES MONROE
    Led the Era of Good Feeling and declared that no European powers should interrupt with American growth, while Americans would respect the Europeans as well.
  28. WHISKEY REBELLION
    Washington's exercising of executive power. Tariffs were placed on a product that farmers were very fond of and the farmers rebelled, attacking tax payers and refusing to pay. Washington led an army to break them up, and the rebels quickly disbanded when they saw the size and might of the army.
  29. MIDNIGHT APPOINTMENTS
    On Adams' last night as president, a law was passed that allowed for more court officials, so Adams hired Federalist judges to take those spots. The judges were not given the position until they had a signed paper of confirmation, and some were not given their papers before Jefferson made it to office. When Jefferson came to office, he could not take the ones who were already accepted out of power, and instead declared that anyone who had not received their papers yet would not be given a position. Was used as a tactic to keep the Federalists in power.
  30. CAUSES FOR THE WAR OF 1812
    British impressment and the Embargo Act of 1802
  31. HARTFORD CONVENTION
    Discussed removing the three fifths compromise because it gave slave states an advantage over free ones, grievances in the Lousiana Purchase and the Embargo of 1807. Andrew Jackson's victory in New Orleans completely discredited the Federalists and eliminated them as a major political force.
  32. MISSOURI COMPROMISE
    Under the leadership of Henry Clay, the number of free and slave states remained equal.
  33. REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD
    The role of women was in raising the next generation of citizens, and thus, they needed to be educated to better serve the country.
  34. INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS
    Invented by Eli Whitney that forever changed the way muskets were built. Increased the economy and sped up manufacturing of weapons.
  35. ALEXANDER HAMILTON
    Founded the Republican party from Washington's cabinet. Favored STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRAIL GROWTH, and POWER TO THE MINORITIES. Aligned with England. Proposes national debt and the Bank of the U.S. to encourage unity.
  36. AARON BURR
    Faced off in a duel with Hamilton and killed him. Jefferson's vice president.

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