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a view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses
drive reduction theory
a theory of motivation stating that motivation arises from imbalances in homeostasis
- internal tension that motivates us to behave in ways that reduce this tension
- (hunger, thirst, sex, addictions)
a theory of motivation stating that people are motivated to behave in ways that maintain what is for them an optimal level of arousal
high arousal vs low arousal activities
- high: extreme sports, loud concerts, action, thrill seeking
- low: quiet evening at home, safe sports, mellow concerts, familiar stuff, chillaxin
stimuli in environment that pull us towards a goal (money, chocolate, sex, status, reward), or repel us (failure, fear of injury, loss, stress)
physiological responses that arise from sexual contact or erotic thoughts
a theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli
biological processes involved in eating behaviors
metabolism (rate of energy utilization) generally keeps us around set point (maintains homeostasis)
brain processes involved in eating behaviors
- neuropeptide Y - more carbs
- serotonin - fewer carbs
- calanin - higher fat foods
- enteristatin - less fatty foods
- endocannabinoids - "munchies"
physiological signals of hunger: "gut feelings" - stomach contractions and distension. Sensors in brain (hypothalamus) detect chemical signals in the bloodstream
signaled when CCK (cholecystokinin) is released into the bloodstream from the small intestine
- abundance of inexpensive, tasty foods that are calorie-dense
- cultural emphasis on getting the best value (super sizing)
- tech decreases need for daily physical activities
- "food culture"
- obesity = BMI over 30
- 34% of US adults are obese, another 30-35% are overweight
- anorexia nervosa: intense fear of being fat, involves severely restricting food intake
- bulimia nervosa: includes cycles of binge-eating and purging
- genetic factors predispose some people toward eating disorders
what environmental-cultural factors play a key role in our eating behavior?
- food availability
- food taste and variety
- presence of others
- "food culture" norms influence when, how, and what we eat
cognitive approach to eating behavior
- our beliefs and decision making regarding food
- "I must clean the plate/get my money's worth!"
- "Food will make me less sad/lonely/stress/tired"
- anything we tell ourselves as an excuse/justification for our eating habits
behavioral approach to eating behavior
- operant conditioning: food consumption is reinforcing, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
- classical conditioning: environmental cues trigger hunger response (sight/smell)
what are biological factors that play a role in human sexual behavior?
- drives, hormones, physiology
- sexual response cycle (excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution)
- Hormonal influences
what are social and cultural aspects of our sexuality?
- gender roles
- dender differences in what people find sexually appealing
What is sexual orientation, and what are some of the complexities of defining it?
- refers to the nature of a person's enduring emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction to others
- unidimensional view (hetero or homo) vs multidimensional (self identity, sexual attraction, actual sexual behavior)
What does research tell us about factors that may play a role shaping sexual orientation?
genetics play a big part
What are characteristics of those with high achievement motivation and can it be developed/increased?
- low fear of failure, leaning/mastery goals vs performance goals, perceive themselves as responsible for outcomes, persistent
- parents encourage persistence, encourage reward success
What do goal setting theory and Maslow's theory tell us about motivation?
- hierarchy of needs
- physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, self actualization
What parts of the brain are involved in the experience of emotion?
- central nervous system
- limbic system (amygdala)
- pyramidal motor system(motor facial expressions)
- extrapyramidal motor system (involuntary facial expressions)
What are key aspects of James peripheral theory?
- brain interprets situation
- stimulates (peripheral) ANS
- detect physiological changes and experience emotion
- basis for polygraph
What are key aspects of Cannon's central theory?
- when the thalamus receives sensory information about emotional events and situations, it sends signals to the autonomic nervous system and cerebral cortex, where the emotion becomes conscious
- The experience of emotion appears directly in the brain, with or without feedback from peripheral responses
What are key aspects of Schachter-Singer's cognitive theories of emotion?
the emotions we experience every day are shaped partly by how we interpret the arousal we feel
Excitation transfer of emotion... what does this theory assert and how have you experienced this 'excitation transfer'?
theory that physiological arousal stemming from one situation is carried over to and enhances emotional experience in an independent situation