Bioen 2100 Midterm 1 Fall 14

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instanthuman
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284453
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Bioen 2100 Midterm 1 Fall 14
Updated:
2014-09-30 00:01:00
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bioengineering
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Bioen 2100 Ch 1-6
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  1. Size range of human cells
    .2 micron (endothelium) - 250 micron (ovum)
  2. eukaryotic cells
    with a nucleus
  3. prokaryotic cells
    no nucleus (or organelles)
  4. plasma membrane purposes
    mechanical barrier, gate keeper
  5. semipermeable
    lets some stuff through
  6. hydrostatic pressure
    fluid pressure
  7. osmotic pressure vs hydrostatic pressure
    equilibrium is not even
  8. darcy's law
    mathematical relationship beween fluid flow and a porous obstruction
  9. permeability constant
    k, darcy's law
  10. pore size
    maximum particle size allowed to pass through a membrane
  11. 1 dalton
    1.66e-24 g
  12. protein mass density
    about 1.37 g/cm cubed
  13. dna/virus mass density
    about 1.65 g/cm cubed
  14. virus diameter
    10-100nm (flu can be 80-120 nm)
  15. bacteria diameter
    1-10 microns
  16. insect circulation
    open (singular tubular heart)
  17. fish circulation
    closed, one sided heart
  18. pulmonary circulation
    through the lungs; arteries need o2, veins have it
  19. systemic circulation
    through the rest of the body
  20. heart and vessels
    cardiovascular system
  21. path out of the heart
    aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava
  22. path of the heart
    r. atrium/tricuspid/r. ventricle/pulmonary valve & circ/l. atrium/mitral/l. ventricle/aortic valve
  23. cardiac output
    volume of blood pumped around the system per minute (L/min)
  24. laminar flow
    "layered" flow (in a parabola)
  25. visccosity
    "sliding friction"
  26. shear rate
    change in length in a tube by change in diameter of a tube
  27. shear stress (tao)
    F/A- force required to overcome the friction of layers sliding past one another
  28. Newtonian fluid
    a fluid whose viscosity does NOT depend on flow rate
  29. non-Newtonian fluid
    a fluid whose viscosity does depend on flow rate.
  30. Poiseuille's assumptions
    tube length > tube radius, steady, laminar flow, newtonian fluid, rigid tubes
  31. resistors
    add in series, inverse add in parallel
  32. conservation of volume
    sans leak, all the blood in = blood out
  33. membrane resistance vs tubular resistance
    membrane << tubular
  34. tensile stress
    length-wise compression or expansion
  35. shear stress
    pushing it sideways
  36. strain (epsilon)
    change in length divided by original length
  37. Young's modulus
    slope of a strain by stress graph (x,y)
  38. stiffness
    young's modulus/elastic modulus
  39. materials that follow Hooke's law
    Hookean
  40. ultimate stress
    breaking point regarding young's modulus
  41. larger compliance
    larger volume for a given pressure
  42. compliance
    stretchy, like a balloon
  43. residual volume
    volume in a compliant vessel with zero pressure
  44. transmural pressure
    pressure difference between the inside and outside of a vessel
  45. principle of conservation of volume
    that blood shouldn't go anywhere but where it's supposed to
  46. diastolic phase
    relax and fill
  47. systolic phase
    contraction and ejection
  48. heart compliance
    high during diastolic, low during systolic
  49. isovolumetric contraction
    contraction with no change in volume (increases pressure)
  50. isovolumetric relaxation
    relaxation with no change in volume (decreases pressure)
  51. high compliance
    low stiffness - super stretchy
  52. low compliance
    high stiffness - beat you with a stick hard
  53. PV loop
    ventricular pressure on the y axis, ventricular volume on the x axis
  54. PV loop markers
    mitral opens and closes on the bottom, aortic on the top
  55. stroke volume
    width on a PV loop
  56. work per heart beat
    area inside the PV loop
  57. Starling's law
    the heart will pump out all of the blood that is returned to it within its limits
  58. slope on a starling diagram
    inverse of cardiac compliance (systolic on top left, diastolic on bottom right)
  59. windkessel element
    a blood vessel possessing both distributed resistance and compliance properties
  60. principle conservation of mass
    mass is not created or destroyed
  61. analytic solution
    explicit formula to use
  62. numerical solution
    fucking Euler, man
  63. pressure vs time curve
    must be continuous
  64. time constant (tao)
    resistance times compliance
  65. time constant is
    the time response of a fluid system (1 tao = 37% of the original)

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