Exam 1

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efrain12
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Exam 1
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2014-10-01 02:33:14
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Life Nutrition
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  1. Side effects of contraceptives) what are the side effects of oral contraceptives? (7)
    - increase HDL

    -increase LDL, TG, total cholesterol

    -increase in blood clots

    -increase risk in cervical cancer

    -decrease blood levels of B6

    -decrease blood levels of b12

    -increase blood levels of copper
  2. Side effects of contraceptives) first year side effects for injections (5)
    -weight gain

    -irregular periods

    -fatigue

    -headache

    -abdominal pain
  3. Side effects of contraceptives) long term side effects of injections (4)
    - decrease bone density

    -decrease HDL choelsterol

    -increase in LDL cholesterol

    -increase in insulin levels
  4. Side effects of contraceptives) what are some high rate of side effects in implants use (3)
    -erratic bleeding

    -weight gain

    -headaches
  5. Side effects of contraceptives) side effects of using contraceptive patch (6)
    -increase in cholesterol and TG

    -increase HDL

    -breast soreness

    -headaches

    -abdominal pain 

    -application site reactions
  6. PCOS) what is significant about PCOS and infertility?
    It is the leading cause of infertility
  7. PCOS) how is characterized by? (10)
    -insulin resistance

    -high blood insulin levels

    -high testosterone levels

    -obesity

    -polycystic ovaries

    -menstrual dysfunction

    -amenorrhea

    -infertility

    -hirutism

    -acne
  8. PCOS) 4 ways to manage the syndrome
    -increase insulin sensitivity

    • -lifestyle modifications
    • *leading a healthy life

    -insulting sensitizing meds

    -may also use drugs to stimulate ovulation
  9. PCOS) incorporating exercise and weight loss as a lifestyle odficiation will do what?
    -improve insulin sensitivity

    -decrease blood lipids and insulin levels

    -decrease glucose

    -decrease testosterone levels
  10. PCOS) incorporating a better nutrition as a lifestyle modification would entail...(6)
    Eat more..

    -omega 3

    -whole grains

    -fruits and veggies

    -non-fat dairy products

    -regular meals

    -Low-GI foods
  11. Nutritional recommendations for hypertension during pregnancy) nutritional interventions for chronic hypertension (3)
    -weight gain recommendations are the same

    -DASH diet

    -if salt sensitive, then moderate salt intake
  12. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) what percent should protein comprise of from total calories?
    20%
  13. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) what is RDA for vitamin A
    770 mg
  14. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) what is RDA for vitamin D
    5 mg or 200 IU
  15. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) what is RDA for b12?
    2.6 mg/day
  16. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for b6?
    1.9 mg/day
  17. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for thiamin
    1.4 mg/day
  18. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for niacin
    18 mg/day
  19. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for riboflavin
    1.4 mg/day
  20. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for pantothenic acid
    6 mg/day
  21. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for calcium
    1000 mg/day
  22. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for zinc
    11 mg
  23. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for iron
    27 mg/day
  24. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for iodine
    220 mg.day
  25. Approximate nutritional needs for proteins, calories, micronutrients for pregnancy) RDA for EPA and dha
    300 mg
  26. Potential effects of maternal obesity on mom and baby) children of obese women are at risk of (6)
    -macrosomia

    -low apgar scores

    -shoulder dystocia

    -childhood obesity

    -difficulty regulating blood sugar after delivery

    -perinatal mortality due to greater difficulty with delivery
  27. Potential effects of maternal obesity on mom and baby) obese women are at greater risk for...(5)
    -hypertension

    -gestational diabetes

    -induced labor

    -prolonged labor

    -c-section
  28. Potential effects of a low and high BMI in fertility ) both of these increases chances of
    Infertility
  29. Potential effects of a low and high BMI in fertility ) low BMI lead to hypothalamic amenorrhea.. which is..? (3)
    -deficits in energy and possibly nutrients lead to hormonal changes that prevent ovulation

    -menstrual irregularities can last months to years

    **usually weight gain restores fertility
  30. Potential effects of a low and high BMI in fertility ) acute nutrition and infertility (2)
    Reduces reproductive capacity bc it leads to hormonal signals that regulate menstrual cycle to change and imparts sperm maturation in males
  31. Potential effects of a low and high BMI in fertility ) effects on obese men that lead to infertility (4)
    - decreased trestosterone

    -decreased in SHBG

    -increase leptin

    -decrease sperm count
  32. Potential effects of a low and high BMI in fertility ) effects that occur to obese women that lead to infertility (4)
    -increase estrogen

    -increase androgens

    -increase leptin

    -decrease SHBG
  33. SHIFT in fuel usage during pregnancy accelerated fasting metabolism) summary about this
    -in the first half, women are laying down fat stores because the body will be turning these fat stores into glucose in the 2nd half of pregnancy due to the fetus demanding more glucose. Once body starts using glycolysis, mild ketosis may occur after an overnight fast.
  34. What is the RDA for folate?
    600 mcg dfe/day
  35. Physiology of the placenta) what is a placenta
    Bed of tissue that forms between the uterine wall to provide an interface between maternal and fetal circulatory systems

    *structure is designed to prevent fetal and mother blood from touching
  36. Physiology of the placenta) where does exchange of materials occur?
    Within sponge like endometrium through active or passive transport
  37. Physiology of the placenta) what functions does the placenta provide? (3)
    -respiratory

    -absorptive

    -excretory
  38. Things to avoid during pregnancy) 4 things to avoid
    -alcohol

    -smoking

    -lead exposure

    -excessive vitamin A
  39. Nutritional recommendations for gestational diabetes) nutritional recommendations on components of nutritional management (5)
    -assessing dietary and exercise habits

    -developing an individual diet and exercise plan for blood glucose control

    -monitoring weight gain

    -interpreting blood glucose and urinary ketone results

    -ensuring follow up during pregnancy and post partum
  40. Nutritional recommendations for gestational diabetes) goals of nutritional therapy (3)
    -well controlled blood glucose levels

    -hemoglobin A1c less than 7%

    -reduction of risk of developing diabetes, HTN, heart disease, and obesity
  41. Nutritional recommendations for gestational diabetes) nutritional approach (5)
    -whole grain breads/ cereals, veggies, fruits, high fiber foods

    -limited intake of simple sugars and foods that contain them

    -low GI foods

    -monounsaturated fats

    -regular meals and snack daily
  42. Categorizations of pre-term, gestational age) what is classified as a pre-term baby?
    Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation
  43. Categorizations of pre-term, gestational age) 2 categories under small for gestational age
    -disproportionally small for gestational age

    -proportionally small for gestational age
  44. Categorizations of pre-term, gestational age) characteristics of disproportionally small for gestational age (4)
    -weigh less 10%ile of weight for gestational age

    -growth retardation primarily affecting weight

    -have normal length and head circumference for age

    -infants have poor developed muscles and almost no subcutaneous fat


    *** most likely occurred at the end
  45. Categorizations of pre-term, gestational age) Proportionally small for gestational age (3)
    -look small but well proportioned

    -growth reduction in both weight and height

    -size of all parts of body are reduced proportionally


    ***most likely experienced malnutrition throughout the whole term
  46. Categorizations of pre-term, gestational age) large for gestational age (3)
    -infants that weigh more than 90%ile for gestational age

    -may be related to pre-pregnancy obesity, poorly controlled DM, excessive weight gain

    -delivery tends to get complicated but these infants have lower illness rates
  47. PMS) description of pms?
    Cluster of physical, emotional, psychological symptoms that some women experience prior to their menstrual cycle
  48. PMS) physical signs of pmsq (6)
    -fatigue

    -abdominal bloating

    -swelling of the hands of feet

    -headache

    -tender breasts

    -nausea
  49. PMS) psychological symptoms (6)
    -craving for sweet or salty foods

    -depression

    -irritability

    -mood swings

    -anxiety

    -social withdrwal
  50. PMS) what are probable causes? (3)
    -abnormal serotonin activity following ovulation

    - hormonal changes of menstrual cycle

    - low intake of vitamin d and calcium
  51. PMS) what has been shown to alleviate this? (6)
    - increase b6

    -increase magnesium

    -exercise and stress reduction

    - reducing caffeine

    -increasing vitamin d and calcium

    - taking antidepressants
  52. Hormones involved in fertility/infertility) if a normal weight woman loses 10-15% weight... which hormones are affected?
    -decreased estrogen

    -decreased LH

    -decreased FSH

    **results in amenorrhea, anovulatory cycles, short or absent luteal phases
  53. Hormones involved in fertility/infertility) in men, obesity does what to 4 hormones?
    -decreases testosterone

    -decrease SHBG

    -increases leptin

    -decreases sperm count
  54. Hormones involved in fertility/infertility) in obese women, what haoppoens to 4 hormones?
    -increases estrogen

    -increases androgens

    -increases leptin

    -decreases SHBG
  55. Hormones involved in fertility/infertility) wants the consequence of obesity leading to insulin resistance?
    Insulin can stimulate testosterone production which will lead to ovulatory dysfunction
  56. Hormones involved in fertility/infertility) for obese men, what did losing weight result in?
    Increase in SHBG
  57. Hormones involved in fertility/infertility) in obese women, what did losing weight result in? (3)
    • -Increase SHBG
    • -decrease in estrogen
    • -insulin resistance
  58. WIC) description of WIC
    • Provides nutrition education, supplementary foods, and referrals to health and social services to economically disadvantage women who are pregnant, post partum, or caring for infants under age of 5
    • **provides food vouchers for the needy ones
  59. WIC) how is eligibility based on? (2)
    Low income status and the presence of a nutritional risk
  60. WIC) what are some of positive effects from this program (3)
    -infants weigh more, less likely to be SGA at birth, less likely to be preterm baby

    -children in WIC consume more nutriotus foods and lower iron deficiency

    -cost effective on saving in Medicaid costs
  61. Factors that can affect infertility) (5)
    -undernutrition

    -obesity

    -over-exercising

    -effect of nutrients

    -male fertility issues
  62. Benefits of breast milk) breastfeeding benefits to infants PART I (4)
    -provides optimal nutrition to the infant

    • -isosmotic
    • *provides fluid and food reqs

    -low protein content thus does not tax kidneys of infatn

    -whey protein is easily digestible
  63. Benefits of breast milk) breastfeeding benefits to infants PART II (3)
    -provides lipids like essential fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, medium chain triglycerides, chleosterol

    -long chain polyunsaturated fats and DHA promote development of CNS


    -minerals are balanced to meet infant needs
  64. Benefits of breast milk) breastfeeding benefits to infants  beyong 6 months (5)
    -provides optimal nutrition

    -fresh safe milk

    -enhances immune system

    -protects against infectious diseases

    -protects against allergies and intolerances
  65. Benefits of breast milk) breastfeeding benefits to infants  beyong 6 months (6) PART II
    -decreases risk of diarrhea and respiratory infections

    -promotes correct development of mouth

    -decreases risk of childhood obesity

    -increases cognitive function

    -reeudecs risk for heart disease

    -increases bonding with mother

    -immunological beenfits
  66. Morning sickness) how to treat ? (5)
    -small, frequent meals

    -separate food and liquid

    -avoid offensive odors

    -get fresh air

    -high carbs foods tend to be well tolerated
  67. Morning sickness) how is this caused?
    Caused by increased levels of HCG, progesterone, estrogen, and other hormones in early pregnancy
  68. Morning sickness) what are 3 supplements that may help treat it?
    -vitamin b6

    -multivitamin supplements

    -ginger
  69. FDA recommendations for fish intake during pregnancy)
    -eat less than 12 ozs a week of fish and shellfish that are low in mercury
  70. Contraindications for breastfeeding) (7)
    -exposure to environmental contaminants

    -use of illegal drugs

    -use of alcohol or nicotine

    -active tuberculosis

    -HIV or AIDS

    -meds such as radioactive isotopes, anti-metabolites, cancer chemo agents, lithium, ergotamine

    -always check drugs, and herbal medications for safety
  71. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) blood volume and composition (2)
    -plasma volume surges thus making mother tired

    -hematocrit and hemoglobin appear to decrease bc RBC production as much as plasma volume
  72. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) cardiovascular system
    -heart grows slightly larger due to increased blood volume and cardiac output
  73. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) respiration (2)
    -thoracic breathing replaces abdominal breathing

    -breathes deeper and may have to take extra breaths
  74. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) renal function
    -kidneys must mange the increased metabolic, circulatory and excretory demands of the body
  75. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) metabolic adjustments
    -Basal metabolic rate increases
  76. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) first half pregnancy of carbs metabolism
    -increases insulin production to lay down fat stores and convert glucose to glycogen and fat
  77. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) 2nd half of pregnancy in carbs metabolism (3)
    -stops converting glucose to glycogen + fat

    -insulin resistance rises in mother making her rely on fat stores

    -increase of glucose production in the liver
  78. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) protein metabolisms
    -increased need for nitrogen and protein for synthesis of maternal and fetal tissues
  79. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) calcium metabolism
    -increased rate of bone turnover and reformation
  80. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) sodium and other mineral
    Increased reqs due to elevated levels of body water and tissue synthesis
  81. Physiological stages of change during pregnancy) GI function (7)
    -appetite increases

    -nausea/vomiting may occur

    • -GI motility is dimished
    • *constipation

    -intestinal secretion reduced

    -sense of tastes altered

    -absorption of nutrients enhanced

    • -decrease in smooth muscle of GI tract
    • *constipation and heartburn
  82. Fetal origins of later disease risk theory ) what is the theory based on?
    • That exposure to adverse nutritional and other conditions during critical periods of growth can permanently affect body structures and functions
    • *these changes will predisposed the individual for later
  83. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease)what has studies shown us about smaller infants and chronic diseases later in life?
    The smaller the infant the more likely they will have an issue like heart or stroke
  84. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease) what happens if there are less than optimal conditions during gestation? (1+2)
    Fetal tissues make adaptations to cope with energy and nutrient excesses and shortages

    -this allows to change reqs for energy and nutrients to allow it to survive

    -biologically preparing fetus for similar conditions after birth

    ***nutrition programming
  85. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease) adaptations to ensure CNS is receiving adequate glucose during glucose limited times...
    expression of genes may suppress insulin receptors to increase insulin resistance and therefore decrease glucose uptake so more is available for cns
  86. Approximate nutritional needs for breastfeeding) DRIs for normal weight lactating women- how many calories per day in first 6 months? What about afterwarffds?
    -500 kcal/day ; 400 kcal/day
  87. Approximate nutritional needs for breastfeeding) based on 2400 kcal (7)
    -8 oz grains

    -3 cups veggies

    -2 cups fruits

    -3 cups milks

    -6.5 oz of meat and beans

    7 teaspoons of oil

    -360 kcal in deseerts, fats, sweets
  88. What effects the quantity and quality of breast milk)
    -depends on maternal nutritional status
  89. Recommendations to encourage a woman to begin, continue breastfeeding) (5)
    -promote it as a norm for feeding infant

    -collaborate with others who promote breastfeeding

    -initiate/support breast feeding campaigns

    -conduct empirical research

    -educate prenatal and postpartum women on breastfeeding.
  90. Potential barriers to breastfeeding) (7)
    -embarrassment

    -time and social constraints

    -concerns about loss of freedom

    -lack of support

    -lack of confidence

    -concerns about diet and health practices

    -fear of pain
  91. Chart on pregnancy weight gain recommendations) underweight ( less 18.5)
    28-40
  92. Chart on pregnancy weight gain recommendations) normal weight (18.5-24.9)
    25-35
  93. Chart on pregnancy weight gain recommendations) over weight (25-29.9)
    15-25
  94. Chart on pregnancy weight gain recommendations) obese
    15
  95. Chart on pregnancy weight gain recommendations) twin pregnancy
    35-45
  96. Rate of weight gain) (2)
    -first semester= 3-5 lbs

    -1 pound a week after that
  97. Recommended intake for folate
    600 mcg
  98. Recommended for folic acid
    400
  99. Which is easier to digest folic acid or folate?
    Folic acid

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