Med Term Ch 11 & 12 Study Guide

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Med Term Ch 11 & 12 Study Guide
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Med Term Ch 11 & 12 Study Guide
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  1. which secrete tears. located on the underside of the upper eyelid just above the outer corner of each eye.
    Lacrimal glands
  2. commonly known as tears. main function is to maintain moisture on the anterior surface of the eyeball. Blinking distributes the fluid around the eye.
    Lacrimal fluid
  3. consists of a duct at the inner corner of each eye.  These ducts collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs. Crying is the overflowing of tears from this.
    Lacrimal Canal
  4. also known as tear sac, is an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct.
    lacrimal sac
  5. the white of the eye. maintains the shape of the eye and protects the delicate inner layers of tissue.  This tough, fibrous tissue forms the outer layer of the eye except for the part covered by the cornea.
    sclera
  6. also known as _____ coat, is the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye.  opaque means light can't pass through.
    choroid
  7. is the sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye.  the _____ receives nerve impulses and transmits them to the brain via the optic nerve.
    rentina
  8. black and white receptors
    Rods
  9. color receptors
    cones
  10. also known as the _____ lutea is the clearly defined light-sensitive area in the corner of the retina that is responsible for sharp central vision.  Note: this term means small spot. 
    macula
  11. is a pit in the middle of the macula.  Color vision is best in this area because it contains high concentration of cones and no rods.
    fovea centralis
  12. also known as blind spot, is a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve.  this is called the blind spot because it doesn't have any rods or cones to convert images into nerve impulses.
    optic disk
  13. Transmits these nerve impulses from the retina to the brain.
    Optic Nerve
  14. an injury such as a scratch or irritation to the outer layers of the cornea
    corneal abrasion
  15. is a non-cancerous growth that starts in the of the clear, thin tissue (conjunctiva) of the eye. This growth covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and extends onto the cornea. It is often slightly raised and contains visible blood vessels. The problem may occur on one or both eyes.
    pterygium
  16. inflammation of the whites of the eye.  this condition is usually associated with infections, chemical injuries, or autoimmune diseases.
    scleritis
  17. also knowns as color blindness, is the inability to distinguish certain colors in a normal manner. this genetic condition is caused by deficiencies in or the absence of certain types of cones in the retina.
    Monochromatism
  18. also known as night blindness, is a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night.
    nyctalopia
  19. is a condition in which the eyes does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea.
    astigmatism
  20. also known as far sightedness, is a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina. this condition can occur in childhood, but usually causes difficulty after age 40.
    hyperopia
  21. also known as nearsightedness, is a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina. this condition occurs most commonly around puberty.
    myopia
  22. is a dimness of vision of the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable diseases of the eye.
    amblyopia
  23. also known as blind spot, is an abnormal area of diminished vision surrounded by an area of normal vision.
    scotoma
  24. is the partial or complete suturing of the upper and lower eyelids to protect the eye when the lids are paralyzed and unable to close normally.
    tarsorrhaphy
  25. also known as keratoplasty, is  the surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor.
    corneal transplant
  26. is a surgical procedure to treat myopia. during this surgery, incisions are made in the cornea to cause it to flatten.  these incisions allow the sides of the cornea to bulge outward and thereby flatten the central portion of the cornea.  this brings the focal point of the eye closer to the retina and improves distance vision.
    radial keratotomy
  27. also known as the hammer.
    malleus
  28. also so known as the anvil
    incus
  29. also known as the stirrup
    stapes
  30. also known as the auditory tubes, are narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat.  The purpose of these tubes is to equalize the air pressure within the middle ear with that of the outside atmosphere.
    eustachian tubes
  31. also known as an earache, is pain in the ear.
    Otalgia
  32. is the flow of pus from the ear
    otopyorrhea
  33. is the ankylosis (fused together) of the bones of the middle ear, resulting in the conductive hearing loss.  this condition is treated with a stapedectomy.
    otosclerosis
  34. bleeding from the ear.
    otorrhagia
  35. pressure related ear condition. this condition can be caused by pressure changes when flying, driving in the mountains scuba diving, or when the eustachian tube is blocked.
    barotrauma
  36. inflammation of any part of the mastoid bone cells.  This condition may develop when acute otitis media that cannot be controlled with antibiotics spreads to the ______ process.
    mastoiditis
  37. a sense of whirling, dizziness, and loss of balanced that are often combined with nausea and vomiting.  although it is a symptom of many disorders, recurrent _____ is sometimes associated with inner ear problems such as Meniere's disease.
    vertigo
  38. rare chronic disorder in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of vertigo, a fluctuating hearing loss (usually in one ear) and tinnitus.
    Meniere's disease
  39. the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear.  it can range from the inability to hear sounds of a certain pitch or intensity, to a complete loss of hearing.
    deafness
  40. is a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages.
    presbycusis
  41. occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid filled inner ear.  causes of this include earwax, infection, fluid in middle ear, punctured ear drum, otosclerosis, and scarring. this hearing loss can be treated.
    conductive hearing loss
  42. is an electronic device that bypasses the damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve.
    Cochlear implant
  43. which mean glue, is a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin, and also in the bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
    collagen
  44. is released in response to an injury, is an anticoagulant (prevents blood clotting)
    heparin
  45. which is released in response to allergens, causes the signs of an allergic responses, including itching and increased mucus secretion.
    histamine
  46. abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat.
    anhidrosis
  47. is profuse sweating. normal condition when exposed to heat or exertion, but can also be the body's response to emotional or physical distress.
    diaphoresis
  48. excessive sweating in one area or over the whole body.
    hyperhidrosis
  49. abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips.  this condition is hereditary, but usually caused by changes in associated with oxygen deficiencies related to coronary/ pulmonary disease.
    clubbing
  50. also known as spoon nails, is a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon. this condition is often indication of iron deficiency anemia
    koilonychia
  51. genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises of the eye. this condition is the result of a missing enzyme that necessary for the production of melanin.
    albinism
  52. skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes.  Causes irregular patches of white skin, a process known as depigmentation.  hair growing in the affected area may also turn white.
    vitiligo
  53. Abnormally dark pigmentation of the skin or other tissues, resulting from a disorder of pigment metabolism
    melanosis
  54. a discolored flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter. freckles, or flat moles, are examples.
    macule
  55. is a solid, raised skin lesion that is larger than 0.5 cm in diameter and deeper than papule.
    nodule
  56. small, raised lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus.  small insect bites and pimples are examples.
    papule
  57. also known as a welt, is a small bump that itches.  it can appear as urticaria or hives as symptoms of allergic reaction.
    wheal
  58. is an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away.
    abrasion
  59. decubitus sore/bed sore.  open ulcerated wound that is caused by prolonged pressure on an area of skin.
    pressure sore
  60. is a groove or crack-like break in the skin.
    fissure
  61. a torn or jagged wound, or accidental cut wound.
    laceration
  62. is a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a rusty nail or ice pick.  this type of percutaneous wound carries high risk for infections, particularly tetanus.
    punctured wound.
  63. is a flat vascular birthmark made up of dilated blood capillaries, creating a large, reddish purple discoloration on the face or neck.
    port-wine stain.
  64. aka capillary hemangioma. is a soft, raised, pink or red vascular birthmark
    strawberry hemangioma
  65. term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation.
    dermatosis
  66. autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk. this condition also attacks the connective tissue in other body systems, especially in the joints.
    lupus erythematosis
  67. skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on  the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks.
    psoriasis
  68. aka hives.  are itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction.
    urticaria
  69. aka bulbous nose, usually occurs in older men. condition is characterized by hyperplasia (overgrowth) of the tissue of the nose and associated with advanced rosacea.
    rhinophyma
  70. aka boils.  larger, tender, swollen, areas caused by staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands.
    furuncles
  71. tissue necrosis. most common  caused of a loss of circulation to the affected tissues.  the tissue death is followed by bacterial invasion that causes putrefaction and if this infection enters the bloodstream, it can be fatal.
    gangrene
  72. severe infection caused by group A strep bacteria, which is also known as flesh eating bacteria.
    necrotizing fascitis.
  73. infestation of head lice.
    pediculosis capitis
  74. skin infection caused by an ifnestion of itch mites.  these tiny mites cause small, itchy bumps and blisters by burrowing into the top layer of human skin to lay their eggs.
    scabies
  75. formulation of a _____ Toxin.  this is the same neurotoxin responsible for the form of food poisoning known as _____.   when small sterile doses are injected into muscles on the forehead, it can temporarily block the nerve signals to the injected muscles for up to 3 to 4 months.
    botox
  76. is a form of soft tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars, or to make lips appear fuller.  tiny quantities of collagen are injected under a line or scar to boost the skin's natural supply of collagen.  the effect usually lasts for 3 to 12 months.
    collagen replacement therapy
  77. aka facelift. surgical removal of excess skin and fat from the face to eliminate wrinkles.
    rhytidectomy

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