Chapter 9 & 10

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Mingming
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284530
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Chapter 9 & 10
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2014-10-01 07:18:27
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Chapter 10
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Psychology
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  1. concerns the whys of behavior.
    psychology of motivation
  2. hypothetical states that activate behavior towards goals.
    Motives
  3. needs necessary for survival
    Physiological needs
  4. include needs for achievement, power, self-esteem, social approval, and belonging.
    Psychological needs
  5. arouse us to action
    drives
  6. are the counterparts of physiological needs
    Physiological drives
  7. are objects, persons, or situations viewed as capable of satisfying a need or as desirable for its own sake.
    Incentives
  8. naturally and neurally prewired to respond to certain stimuli in certain ways.
    Animal
  9. called instincts or fixed action patterns.
    Species-specific behaviors
  10. argued that humans have instincts
    • William James
    • William McDougal
  11. trigger arousal (tension) and activate behavior
    Primary drives
  12. suggested that primary drives activate behavior
    Hull
  13. acquired through experience
    Acquired drives
  14. the organism is motivated to increase stimulation not reduce a drive
    Stimulus motives
  15. believed that people are motivated by the conscious desire for personal growth
    Abraham Maslow
  16. self initiated striving to become whatever we believe we are capable of being.
    Self-actualization
  17. ranges from physiological needs such as hunger and thirst through self actualization.
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  18. suggested that people are motivated to hold consistent beliefs and to justify their behavior
    Festinger
  19. We get these signals from the digestive tract and also from our mouths from chewing and swallowing
    Satiety or satisfaction
  20. stomach contractions
    Hunger pangs
  21. The stop eating center of the brain
    Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
  22. When ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the rat continues to eat. It becomes ___
    hyperphagic
  23. is the start eating center of the brain
    Lateral hypothalamus
  24. When Lateral hypothalamus is destroyed the rat may stop eating altogether
    aphagic
  25. a risk factor in various chronic medical conditions including diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, stroke, heart disease, and some cancers and arthritis.
    Obesity
  26. the point at which the hunger drive kicks in because of fat deficiency in cells
    Set point
  27. metabolizes food more slowly than muscle does
    Fatty tissue
  28. slows down the metabolic rate thus making it more difficult to lose weight
    Dieting
  29. Average man ___% muscle, ___% fat
    • 40%
    • 15%
  30. Average woman ___% muscle, ___% fat
    • 23%
    • 25%
  31. Characterized by persistent, gross disturbances in eating patterns
    Eating Disorders
  32. eating disorder characterized by Extreme fear of being too heavy, Dramatic weight loss, Distorted body image, Resistance to eating enough to maintain a healthy weight
    Anorexia Nervosa
  33. is characterized by recurrent cycles of binging and purging
    Bulimia Nervosa
  34. can include vomiting, strict dieting, fasting, laxatives, and prolonged exercise
    Purging
  35. may be natural but is strongly influenced by religious, moral beliefs, cultural tradition, folklore and superstition
    Sexual motivation
  36. fuel the sex drive and promote sexual response
    Sex hormones
  37. swelling of the genital tissues with blood
    Vasocongestion
  38. is muscle tension; causes facial grimaces, spasms in the hands and feet and the spasm of orgasm
    Myotonia
  39. Vasocongestion causes erection in men and vaginal lubrication, swells the clitoris and flattens and spreads the vaginal lips in women
    Excitement Phase
  40. The body returns to its unaroused state
    Resolution Phase
  41. sexual attraction to people of the other sex
    Heterosexual orientation
  42. attracted to and interested in forming romantic relationships with people of their own sex
    Homosexual orientation
  43. Striving to get ahead, to make it, to invent, etc.
    Achievement Motivation
  44. help pioneer the assessment of motivation
    Assessment of Motivation
  45. developed the Thematic Apperception Test
    Henry Murray
  46. contains cards with pictures and drawings that are subject to various interpretations
    Thematic Apperception Test
  47. Tangible rewards can serve as an incentive for maintaining good grades
    Extrinsic motivation
  48. feeling states with physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components
    Emotions
  49. a universal sign of friendliness and approval
    Smiling
  50. deals with positive emotions such as happiness and love
    Positive Psychology
  51. argues that facial expressions can also affect our emotional state
    Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
  52. that something happens (a situation) that is cognitively appraised (interpreted) by the person and the feeling state (a combination of arousal and thoughts) follows
    Commonsense Theory
  53. Our emotions follow rather than cause our behavioral response to events
    James-Lange Theory
  54. An event might simultaneously trigger bodily responses and the experience of emotion
    Cannon-Bard Theory
  55. The label we give to an emotion depends on our cognitive appraisal of the situation
    Theory of Cognitive Appraisal
  56. monitor sympathetic arousal.
    Lie detector tests (Polygraphs)
  57. connected with higher levels of arousal
    Stronger emotions
  58. reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another
    Personality
  59. characterized personality as conflict, a dynamic struggle
    Sigmund Freud
  60. The region that pokes through into the light of awareness
    conscious
  61. contains elements of experience that are out of awareness but can be made conscious simply by focusing on them.
    Preconscious mind
  62. shrouded in mystery
    Unconscious mind
  63. the automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from awareness.
    Repression
  64. Talk about anything that pops into their mind.
    psychoanalysis
  65. Psychic structures or mental structures that are the clashing forces of personality
    The Structure of Personality
  66. present at birth and represents physiological drives and is unconscious
    Id
  67. stands for reason and good sense, for rational ways of coping with frustration.
    ego
  68. develops throughout childhood, usually incorporating the moral standards and values of parents through identification
    superego
  69. is aimed at preserving and perpetuating life
    Eros
  70. psychic energy involving sexual impulses
    Libido
  71. during the first year of life. If it fits into the mouth then it goes in the mouth
    Oral stage
  72. gratification is attained through contraction and relaxation of the muscles that control elimination of waste products from the body
    Anal stage
  73. may stem from conflict and lead to anal retentive (excessive self control) or anal expulsive (careless, messiness, and even sadism).
    Anal fixations
  74. during the third year of life. The major erogenous zone is the penis for boys and the clitoris in girls
    Phallic stage
  75. boys want to marry their mothers; hostility towards father
    Oedipus complex
  76. irls want to marry father; hostility towards mother
    Electra complex
  77. comes when children begin to identify with their same sex parent
    Resolution
  78. sexual feelings remain unconscious
    Latency stage
  79. find sexual gratification through intercourse with a member of the other gender
    Genital stage
  80. a Swiss psychiatrist developed his own psychoanalytic theory called analytical psychology
    Carl Jung
  81. contains primitive images called archetypes that reflect the history of our species
    Collective unconscious
  82. influence our thoughts and emotions and cause us to respond to cultural themes in stories and films
    Archetypes
  83. a self aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles and develop the individual’s potential
    Creative self
  84. are reasonably stable elements of personality that are inferred from behavior
    Traits
  85. believed that traits are embedded in bodily fluids
    Hippocrates
  86. associated with a choleric (quick tempered) disposition
    Yellow bile
  87. associated with a sanguine (warm, cheerful) disposition
    Blood
  88. associated with the phlegmatic (sluggish, calm, cool) disposition.
    Phlegm
  89. associated with a melancholic (gloomy, pensive) temperament.
    Black bile
  90. catalogued approximately 18,000 human traits from dictionaries
    Gordon Allport
  91. be high in both introversion and neuroticism.
    anxious person
  92. extraverted and unstable
    choleric type
  93. extroverted and stable
    sanguine
  94. introverted and stable.
    phlegmatic
  95. introverted and unstable.
    melancholic
  96. tended to be more descriptive than explanatory. Sometimes criticized as being circular.
    Trait theory
  97. book of Peterson and Seligman that lists things that can go right with people
    Character Strengths and Virtues
  98. a contemporary view of learning developed by Bandura. Focuses on the importance of learning by observation.
    Social Cognitive Theory
  99. whether a person will behave in a certain way also depends on what the person expects about the outcomes of that behavior and the subjective values of those outcomes.
    Expectancies
  100. beliefs that we can accomplish certain things
    Self-Efficacy expectations
  101. Acquiring knowledge by observing others.
    Observational Learning
  102. Emphasizes the role of cognition in gender typing.
    Gender-schema theory
  103. dwell on the meaning of life.
    Humanists
  104. the hub of this search for meaning of life
    Self-awareness
  105. argued that people also have a conscious need for self-actualization-to become all that they can be
    Abraham Maslow
  106. people shape themselves through free choice and action.
    Self Theory
  107. made on the basis of your values.
    choices
  108. consist of our impressions of ourselves and our evaluations of our adequacy
    Self-concepts
  109. unique ways of looking at ourselves and the world.
    Frames of Reference
  110. accept people as having intrinsic merit regardless of their behavior at the moment.
    Unconditional positive regard
  111. mental images of what we are capable of becoming
    self-ideals
  112. helped emphasize the importance of personal experience
    Humanistic-Existential perspective
  113. see humans as free to make choices, assuming personal freedom.
    Humanistic perspective
  114. tend to define themselves in terms of their personal identities and to give priority to their personal goals.
    Individualists
  115. tend to foster individualism to a degree.
    Capitalist systems
  116. tend to define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong and to give priority to the group’s goals.
    Collectivists
  117. the process by which immigrants become acclimated to the customs and behavior patterns of their new host culture
    Acculturation
  118. has been shown to be connected with acculturation patterns among immigrants
    Self-Esteem
  119. external forces that are internalized.
    Sociocultural factors
  120. provides valuable insights into the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation.
    sociocultural perspective
  121. extent to which the test measures what it is suppose to measure.
    Validity
  122. the stability of one’s results from one testing to another
    Reliability
  123. process which checks out the scores, validity, reliability of a test with people of various ages and from various groups.
    Standardization
  124. trained observers check off each occurrence of a specific behavior within a certain time frame.
    Behavior-rating scales
  125. aids in gaining insight into whether individuals are suited for certain occupations.
    Aptitude assessment
  126. present respondents with a standardized group of test items in the form of a questionnaire.
    Objective test
  127. limited to a specific range of answers.
    Responses
  128. respondents are asked to indicate which of two statements is more true for them
    Forced-choice format
  129. contains hundreds of items in a true-false format
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  130. People are shown ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or ambiguous drawings and asked to say what they look like.
    Projective Tests
  131. Individuals are shown inkblots and asked what they look like
    The Rorschach Inkblot Test
  132. Developed by Murray and Morgan; the test consists of drawings and subjects are asked to make up stories about them.
    Thematic Apperception Test

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