Chapter 9 & 10
Card Set Information
Chapter 9 & 10
concerns the whys of behavior.
psychology of motivation
hypothetical states that activate behavior towards goals.
needs necessary for survival
include needs for achievement, power, self-esteem, social approval, and belonging.
arouse us to action
are the counterparts of physiological needs
are objects, persons, or situations viewed as capable of satisfying a need or as desirable for its own sake.
naturally and neurally prewired to respond to certain stimuli in certain ways.
fixed action patterns
argued that humans have instincts
trigger arousal (tension) and activate behavior
suggested that primary drives activate behavior
acquired through experience
the organism is motivated to increase stimulation not reduce a drive
believed that people are motivated by the conscious desire for personal growth
self initiated striving to become whatever we believe we are capable of being.
ranges from physiological needs such as hunger and thirst through self actualization.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
suggested that people are motivated to hold consistent beliefs and to justify their behavior
We get these signals from the digestive tract and also from our mouths from chewing and swallowing
Satiety or satisfaction
The stop eating center of the brain
Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
When ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the rat continues to eat. It becomes ___
is the start eating center of the brain
When Lateral hypothalamus is destroyed the rat may stop eating altogether
a risk factor in various chronic medical conditions including diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, stroke, heart disease, and some cancers and arthritis.
the point at which the hunger drive kicks in because of fat deficiency in cells
metabolizes food more slowly than muscle does
slows down the metabolic rate thus making it more difficult to lose weight
Average man ___% muscle, ___% fat
Average woman ___% muscle, ___% fat
Characterized by persistent, gross disturbances in eating patterns
eating disorder characterized by Extreme fear of being too heavy, Dramatic weight loss, Distorted body image, Resistance to eating enough to maintain a healthy weight
is characterized by recurrent cycles of binging and purging
can include vomiting, strict dieting, fasting, laxatives, and prolonged exercise
may be natural but is strongly influenced by religious, moral beliefs, cultural tradition, folklore and superstition
fuel the sex drive and promote sexual response
swelling of the genital tissues with blood
is muscle tension; causes facial grimaces, spasms in the hands and feet and the spasm of orgasm
Vasocongestion causes erection in men and vaginal lubrication, swells the clitoris and flattens and spreads the vaginal lips in women
The body returns to its unaroused state
sexual attraction to people of the other sex
attracted to and interested in forming romantic relationships with people of their own sex
Striving to get ahead, to make it, to invent, etc.
help pioneer the assessment of motivation
Assessment of Motivation
developed the Thematic Apperception Test
contains cards with pictures and drawings that are subject to various interpretations
Thematic Apperception Test
Tangible rewards can serve as an incentive for maintaining good grades
feeling states with physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components
a universal sign of friendliness and approval
deals with positive emotions such as happiness and love
argues that facial expressions can also affect our emotional state
that something happens (a situation) that is cognitively appraised (interpreted) by the person and the feeling state (a combination of arousal and thoughts) follows
Our emotions follow rather than cause our behavioral response to events
An event might simultaneously trigger bodily responses and the experience of emotion
The label we give to an emotion depends on our cognitive appraisal of the situation
Theory of Cognitive Appraisal
monitor sympathetic arousal.
Lie detector tests (Polygraphs)
connected with higher levels of arousal
reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another
characterized personality as conflict, a dynamic struggle
The region that pokes through into the light of awareness
contains elements of experience that are out of awareness but can be made conscious simply by focusing on them.
shrouded in mystery
the automatic ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from awareness.
Talk about anything that pops into their mind.
Psychic structures or mental structures that are the clashing forces of personality
The Structure of Personality
present at birth and represents physiological drives and is unconscious
stands for reason and good sense, for rational ways of coping with frustration.
develops throughout childhood, usually incorporating the moral standards and values of parents through identification
is aimed at preserving and perpetuating life
psychic energy involving sexual impulses
during the first year of life. If it fits into the mouth then it goes in the mouth
gratification is attained through contraction and relaxation of the muscles that control elimination of waste products from the body
may stem from conflict and lead to anal retentive (excessive self control) or anal expulsive (careless, messiness, and even sadism).
during the third year of life. The major erogenous zone is the penis for boys and the clitoris in girls
boys want to marry their mothers; hostility towards father
irls want to marry father; hostility towards mother
comes when children begin to identify with their same sex parent
sexual feelings remain unconscious
find sexual gratification through intercourse with a member of the other gender
a Swiss psychiatrist developed his own psychoanalytic theory called analytical psychology
contains primitive images called archetypes that reflect the history of our species
influence our thoughts and emotions and cause us to respond to cultural themes in stories and films
a self aware aspect of personality that strives to overcome obstacles and develop the individual’s potential
are reasonably stable elements of personality that are inferred from behavior
believed that traits are embedded in bodily fluids
associated with a choleric (quick tempered) disposition
associated with a sanguine (warm, cheerful) disposition
associated with the phlegmatic (sluggish, calm, cool) disposition.
associated with a melancholic (gloomy, pensive) temperament.
catalogued approximately 18,000 human traits from dictionaries
be high in both introversion and neuroticism.
extraverted and unstable
extroverted and stable
introverted and stable.
introverted and unstable.
tended to be more descriptive than explanatory. Sometimes criticized as being circular.
Peterson and Seligman
that lists things that can go right with people
Character Strengths and Virtues
a contemporary view of learning developed by Bandura. Focuses on the importance of learning by observation.
Social Cognitive Theory
whether a person will behave in a certain way also depends on what the person expects about the outcomes of that behavior and the subjective values of those outcomes.
beliefs that we can accomplish certain things
Acquiring knowledge by observing others.
Emphasizes the role of cognition in gender typing.
dwell on the meaning of life.
the hub of this search for meaning of life
argued that people also have a conscious need for self-actualization-to become all that they can be
people shape themselves through free choice and action.
made on the basis of your values.
consist of our impressions of ourselves and our evaluations of our adequacy
unique ways of looking at ourselves and the world.
Frames of Reference
accept people as having intrinsic merit regardless of their behavior at the moment.
Unconditional positive regard
mental images of what we are capable of becoming
helped emphasize the importance of personal experience
see humans as free to make choices, assuming personal freedom.
tend to define themselves in terms of their personal identities and to give priority to their personal goals.
tend to foster individualism to a degree.
tend to define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong and to give priority to the group’s goals.
the process by which immigrants become acclimated to the customs and behavior patterns of their new host culture
has been shown to be connected with acculturation patterns among immigrants
external forces that are internalized.
provides valuable insights into the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation.
extent to which the test measures what it is suppose to measure.
the stability of one’s results from one testing to another
process which checks out the scores, validity, reliability of a test with people of various ages and from various groups.
trained observers check off each occurrence of a specific behavior within a certain time frame.
aids in gaining insight into whether individuals are suited for certain occupations.
present respondents with a standardized group of test items in the form of a questionnaire.
limited to a specific range of answers.
respondents are asked to indicate which of two statements is more true for them
contains hundreds of items in a true-false format
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
People are shown ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or ambiguous drawings and asked to say what they look like.
Individuals are shown inkblots and asked what they look like
The Rorschach Inkblot Test
Developed by Murray and Morgan; the test consists of drawings and subjects are asked to make up stories about them.
Thematic Apperception Test