Chapter 6 (Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure)

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Chapter 6 (Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure)
2014-10-03 10:44:59
Anatomy Physiology

Chapter 6 (Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure)
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  1. Axial Skeleton(80 bones)?
    Consists of the bones of the skull, thorax, and vertebral column.
  2. Appendicular Skeleton(126 bones)?
    Bones of the limbs and pectoral and pelvic girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton.
  3. What are the five functions of the skeletal
    Support, stores mineral and lipids, produce blood cells, protection, and leverage.
  4. Describe flat bones?
    Thin, roughly parallel surfaces, flat bones for the roof of the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae. They protect underlying soft tissues and have extensive surface area for attachment of skeletal muscles.
  5. Describe sutural bones(wormian)?
    Small, flat, and irregularly shaped bones between the flat bones of the skull. Boarders are like a jigsaw puzzle.
  6. Describe long bones?
    Elongated and slender. They are located in the arm, forearm, thigh and leg, palms, soles, fingers, and toes.  Femur is the largest and heaviest bone in the body.
  7. Describe irregular bones?
    Complex shapes with short, flat, notched, or ridged surfaces. Spinal vertebrae, the bones of the pelvis, and several skull bones.
  8. Describe sesamoid bones?
    Small, flat, and shaped like a sesame seed. Located near joints at the knees, hands, and the feet.
  9. Describe short bones?
    Small and boxy. Wrists and in the ankles.
  10. List the major parts of long bone?
    Epiphysis, metaphysis, red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow, compact, spongy, and articular cartilage.
  11. Describe epiphysis?
    An expanded area found at each end of the bone.
  12. Describe metaphysis?
    Narrow zone that connects epiphysis to the shaft of bone.
  13. Describe red bone marrow?
    Highly vascular and involved in production of red blood cells.
  14. Describe yellow bone marrow?
    Adipose tissue important as an energy reserve.
  15. Describe compact bone?
    Makes up the wall of the diaphysis (long and tubular).
  16. Describe spongy bone?
    Open network of struts and plates that resembles latticework with thin covering of compact bone.
  17. Describe articular cartridge?
    Covers portion of the epiphysis and relies primarily on the diffusion from synovial fluid to obtain oxygen, nutrients, and elimination of wastes.
  18. Describe osteocytes?
    Bone cell responsible for the maintenance and turnover of the mineral content of the surrounding bone.
  19. Describe osteoclasts?
    Cell that dissolves the fibers of the matrix of the bone.
  20. Describe osteoblasts?
    Cell that produces fibers and the matrix of the bone.
  21. Describe osteogenisis?
    Make and release the proteins and other organic components of the matrix.
  22. Describe osteolysis?
    Breakdown of the mineral matrix of the bone.
  23. Describe lacuna?
    Small pit or cavity.
  24. Describe lamellae?
    Connective layers; concentric layers of bone within an oseteon.
  25. Describe canaliculi?
    Permit the diffusion of nutrients and wastes to and from osteocytes.
  26. What is appositual bone growth?
    Enlargement of cartilage in bone by addition of cartilage or bony matrix.
  27. Describe endosteum?
    Incomplete cellular lining on the inner(medullary)surfaces of bones.
  28. Describe periosteum?
    Layer that surrounds a bone, consisting of an outer fibrous region and inner cellular region.
  29. As a bone increases in diameter, what happens to the medullary cavity?
    Gradually enlarges the bone.
  30. Describe endochondral ossification?
    Replacement of cartilaginous model of bone.
  31. What is primary ossification center?
    Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage and invade the central region. Fibroblast migrating with blood vessels differentiate into osteoblasts and begin production of spongy bone.
  32. What is secondary ossification centers?
    Capillaries and osteoblasts migrate into the epiphyses.
  33. What is the purpose of epiphyseal plate?
    Separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis.
  34. What is the epiphyseal line?
    Detectable in x-rays; remains after epiphyseal growth has ended.
  35. How could x-rays of the femur be used to determine whether a person has reached full height?
    If the epiphyseal cartilage is present, growth is still occurring; if not bone has reached its full length.
  36. Define intramembranous ossification?
    Begins when mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts.
  37. What is endochondral ossification?
    Bone develops from a cartilage model.
  38. What is intramembranous ossification
    Bone develops from mesenchymal cells or fibrous connective tissue.
  39. Which three organ systems coordinate to maintain normal blood calcium levels?
    Skeletal system, digestive system, and urinary system.
  40. Describe the Ca++ homeostasis works?
  41. Describe spongy bone formation?
    • Cartilage of external callus replaced by spongy bone.
    • Bone fragments and dead bone are removed and replaced.
    • Ends of fracture held firmly in place.
  42. Describe compact bone formation?
    • Spongy bone replaced by compact bone.
    • Remodeling over time eliminates evidence of fracture.
  43. What is a fracture?
    • Crack or break due to extreme mechanical stress.
    • Most heal as long as blood supply and cellular parts of periosteum and endosteum survive.
  44. What are the four steps of fracture repair?
    Fracture hematoma, callus formation, spongy bone formation, and compact bone formation.
  45. Describe fracture hematoma formation?
    • Large clot closes injured vessels.
    • Develops within several hours.
  46. Describe callus formation?
    • Internal callus:Network of spongy bone unites inner edges of fracture.
    • External callus:Composed of cartilage and bone and stabilizes the outer edges of the fracture. ¬†
  47. What are closed and simple fractures?
    • Completely internal/no break in skin.
    • Only seen on x-rays.
  48. What are open and compound fractures?
    • Project through skin.
    • More dangerous due to: Infection and uncontrolled bleeding.
  49. What is a transverse fracture?
    Break shaft across long axis.
  50. What is a spiral fracture?
    • Produced by twisting stresses.
    • Spread along length of bone.
  51. What is the difference between displaced fractures and nondisplaced fractures?
    • Displaced:Produce new and abnormal bone arrangements.
    • Nondisplaced:Retain normal alignment.
  52. What is a compression fracture?
    Occur in vertebrae subjected to extreme stresses/often associated with osteoporosis.
  53. What is a greenstick fracture?
    One side of shaft broken, one side bent/ generally occurs in children because long bones have yet of ossify fully.
  54. What is a comminuted fracture?
    Shatter affected area producing fragments.
  55. What is a epiphyseal fracture?
    Occur where bone matrix is calcifying/a clean transverse fracture of this type heals well/if not monitored, breaks between epiphyseal plate and cartilage can stop growth at site.
  56. What is a pott's fracture?
    Occurs at ankle and affects both medial malleolus and lateral malleolus.
  57. What is a colles fracture?
    Break in distal radius.