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Compare infection to colonization
Infection: presence and multiplication of another organism with injury to the host
Colonization: establishing a presence of another organism within a host. Normal flora.
Fecal Microbiota Transplabtation
- 200-300 grams of fecal material recommended per treatment
- Used to treat Clostridium difficile infections
- Used in an effort to restore normal flora found within the intestines
organisms that almost always cause disease
disease producing potential of a particular organism
Severity of a disease depends on variables such as:
- health of the host
- virulence of the pathogen
- environmental factors
study of factors, events and circumstances that influence the transmission of infections diseases among humans.
Total number of cases in a given population at risk at a point in time
the number of NEW cases of a disease in a population at risk during a specific period of time
what is the pathogen and its characteristics
what is the source of infectious agent
- Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy; infectious proteins.
- MUST BE INSIDE HOST CELL
- non-cellular DNA/RNA w/ protein capsule
- MUST BE INSIDE HOST CELL
- Measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, chickenpox
- Prokaryotic cells
- Single celled
- some outside and some inside host
- TB, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Syphilis
- Eukaryotic cells
- Mostly single celled if pathogens
- Some outside and some inside host cells
- MALARIA (Plasmodium)
- eukaryotic cells
- mostly single celled if pathogens
- some inside some outside host
- Thrush, Valley Fever
- Eukaryotic cells, all multi-cellular if pathogens
- some outside some inside host
- Parasites: ticks, roundworms, flukes
- bacteria w/ a large amount of peptidoglycan coating cell wall
- STAINS PURPLE
- less peptidoglycan coating (layered)
- stains light pink
Virulence of an infectious agent depends of 4 main factors:
- 1. toxins
- 2. adhesion factors
- 3. evasive factors
- 4. invasive factors
____ are proteins secreted by various pathogens (mostly bacteria). Each is active in tiny amounts and works differently w/ varying specific types of damage to host cells.
____ are the lipoplysaccharide portion of gram-negative bacteria cell wall. Release upon death and disintegration. Always cause widespread, sometimes deadly effects such as shock and DIC. Same symptom result, regardless of species of gram-negative bacteria.
List the three types of adhesion factors
- Capsule (glycocalyx), fimbre, pili-bacteria
- Hemagglutinins: molecules on some viruses
Name two different evasive factors used by bacteria
_____ are the most important reservoir for most infectious agents that have evolved to infect humans
- Can also be animals, water, food, surfaces
What makes an infectious agent transmissible by inhalation?
- travels on dust particles or respiratory droplets
- becomes aerosolized when people sneeze, cough, or laugh. Disseminated by air currents
Main portals of entery:
- Parenteral (percutaneous via blood transfusion or injection)
Give the 6 stages of infectious diseases (IIPACR):
- 1. Infection
- 2. Incubation period
- 3. Prodromal stage
- 4. Acute stage
- 5. Convalescent period
- 6. Resolution phase
Vague signs and symptoms appear in what stage of disease?
Toxic byproducts of microbial metabolism, cell lysis, and immune response mounted by host all occur during which stage of infectious disease?
Progressive elimination of the pathogen, repair of damaged tissue, and resolution of symptoms occurs during what stage of disease infection?
_____ progress from infection to resolution without clinically apparent symptoms.
With ___ disease, the prodromal phase is protracted
A _____ illness is characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms with little or no prodromal period
_____ diseases have a markedly protracted and sometimes irregular course. The host may experience symptoms of the infectious process continuously or sporadically for months or years without a convalescent phase.
Diagnosis of an infectious disease requires two things:
- 1. Recovery of pathogen or evidence of its presence from infected sites of host
- 2. Clinical signs and symptoms compatible w/ and infectious process
Name the three techniques used in laboratory diagnosis:
- a. culture
- b. serology
- c. genomic sequencing
List various methods used to treat infectious disease
- Surgical removal of infected site
- Temp. extremes
- Hyperbaric treatment
- Transplant of normal flora to "out compete"
- Serum antibodies from recovered person to ill