Chapter 14

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Chapter 14
2014-09-30 22:30:29
material from chapter 14
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  1. Compare infection to colonization
    Infection: presence and multiplication of another organism with injury to the host

    Colonization: establishing a presence of another organism within a host. Normal flora.
  2. Fecal Microbiota Transplabtation
    • 200-300 grams of fecal material recommended per treatment
    • Used to treat Clostridium difficile infections
    • Used in an effort to restore normal flora found within the intestines
  3. Pathogens
    organisms that almost always cause disease
  4. Virulence
    disease producing potential of a particular organism
  5. Severity of a disease depends on variables such as:
    • health of the host
    • virulence of the pathogen
    • environmental factors
  6. Epidemiology
    study of factors, events and circumstances that influence the transmission of infections diseases among humans.
  7. Prevalence
    Total number of cases in a given population at risk at a point in time
  8. Incidence
    the number of NEW cases of a disease in a population at risk during a specific period of time
  9. Infectious agent
    what is the pathogen and its characteristics
  10. Reservoir
    what is the source of infectious agent
  11. Prions
    • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy; infectious proteins.
  12. Viruses
    • non-cellular DNA/RNA w/ protein capsule
    • Measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, chickenpox
  13. Bacteria
    • Prokaryotic cells
    • Single celled
    • some outside and some inside host
    • TB, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Syphilis
  14. Protists
    • Eukaryotic cells
    • Mostly single celled if pathogens
    • Some outside and some inside host cells
    • MALARIA (Plasmodium)
  15. Fungi
    • eukaryotic cells
    • mostly single celled if pathogens
    • some inside some outside host
    • Thrush, Valley Fever
  16. Animalia
    • Eukaryotic cells, all multi-cellular if pathogens
    • some outside some inside host
    • Parasites: ticks, roundworms, flukes
  17. Gram-positive
    • bacteria w/ a large amount of peptidoglycan coating cell wall
  18. Gram-negative
    • less peptidoglycan coating (layered)
    • stains light pink
  19. Virulence of an infectious agent depends of 4 main factors:
    • 1. toxins
    • 2. adhesion factors
    • 3. evasive factors
    • 4. invasive factors
  20. ____ are proteins secreted by various pathogens (mostly bacteria). Each is active in tiny amounts and works differently w/ varying specific types of damage to host cells.
  21. ____ are the lipoplysaccharide portion of gram-negative bacteria cell wall. Release upon death and disintegration. Always cause widespread, sometimes deadly effects such as shock and DIC. Same symptom result, regardless of species of gram-negative bacteria.
  22. List the three types of adhesion factors
    • Adhesions-bacteria
    • Capsule (glycocalyx), fimbre, pili-bacteria
    • Hemagglutinins: molecules on some viruses
  23. Name two different evasive factors used by bacteria
    • Capsules
    • Biofilms
  24. _____ are the most important reservoir for most infectious agents that have evolved to infect humans
    • Humans
    • Can also be animals, water, food, surfaces
  25. What makes an infectious agent transmissible by inhalation?
    • travels on dust particles or respiratory droplets
    • becomes aerosolized when people sneeze, cough, or laugh. Disseminated by air currents
  26. Main portals of entery:
    • Nose
    • Mouth
    • Parenteral (percutaneous via blood transfusion or injection)
  27. Give the 6 stages of infectious diseases (IIPACR):
    • 1. Infection
    • 2. Incubation period
    • 3. Prodromal stage
    • 4. Acute stage
    • 5. Convalescent period
    • 6. Resolution phase
  28. Vague signs and symptoms appear in what stage of disease?
    Prodromal stage
  29. Toxic byproducts of microbial metabolism, cell lysis, and immune response mounted by host all occur during which stage of infectious disease?
    Acute stage
  30. Progressive elimination of the pathogen, repair of damaged tissue, and resolution of symptoms occurs during what stage of disease infection?
    Convalescent period
  31. _____ progress from infection to resolution without clinically apparent symptoms.
    Subclinical diseases
  32. With ___ disease, the prodromal phase is protracted
    insidious disease
  33. A _____ illness is characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms with little or no prodromal period
    fulminant illness
  34. _____ diseases have a markedly protracted and sometimes irregular course. The host may experience symptoms of the infectious process continuously or sporadically for months or years without a convalescent phase.
    Chronic diseases
  35. Diagnosis of an infectious disease requires two things:
    • 1. Recovery of pathogen or evidence of its presence from infected sites of host
    • 2. Clinical signs and symptoms compatible w/ and infectious process
  36. Name the three techniques used in laboratory diagnosis:
    • a. culture
    • b. serology
    • c. genomic sequencing
  37. List various methods used to treat infectious disease
    • Chemotherapy
    • Surgical removal of infected site
    • Radiation
    • Temp. extremes
    • Hyperbaric treatment
    • Immunomodulators
    • Transplant of normal flora to "out compete"
    • Serum antibodies from recovered person to ill