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contain the same genes
homologous genes, may be identical or may express variations in their trait
alleles are identical
alleles are different
functions of the four tissue layers?
- epithelium- barrier to environment
- connective- support and protection
- muscle- contraction
- nervous- conduction of signals
examples of epithelium?
- linings of GI
- respiratory tracts
examples of connective tissue?
characteristics of the epithelium?
- cells in thin sheets
- cells rest on a basement membrane
- contains no blood vessels
- blood supply from underlying connective tissue
describe fibers and cells of connective tissues?
- collagen- tough, strong
- reticular- form webs
- elastic- have ability to recoil
difference between loose and dense fibrous connective tissue?
loose- more matrix than fibers
dense- more fibers than matrix
difference between cartilage and fibercartilage?
elastic- pliable (bendable) and able to return to original shape
fibrocartilage- heavy collagen fibers, very tough (unbendable)
anatomy of a nerve cell?
dendrite- cell body- axon- synapse
voluntary striated muscle found joining bones
striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
non-striated, involuntary muscle found int eh walls of internal organs and blood vessels
3 types of cell to cell attachments?
tight junctions- bands of protein that join adjacent cells together near their apical surface
desmosomes- condensed patches of proteins in adjacent cell membranes with protein filaments running through them from one cell to the other
gap junctions- desmosome like cell attachments that have a hole through their middle allowing direct contact between the cytoplasm of one cell and the next
two types of glands?
exocrine- secretions are released through ducts
endocrine- secretions released directly into the blood (no ducts)
depolarization as it applies to a nerve cell, muscle cell
nerve cell- ligand binding to ligand gated sodium channels cause sodium to enter cell, raising its resting membrane potential
muscle cell- at thresold, the increased voltage gated sodium channels and much more sodium comes into the cell
stages of would repair?
- 1) blood clot forms
- 2) immune cells below the clot clean up injury
- 3) new blood vessels grow into the wound
- 4) fibroblasts deposit collagen fibers to strengthen would (granulation tissue)
- 5) epithelaiah cells from the surface fill in beneath the scab and scab falls off
- 6) collagen fibers increase until the new vessels are crowded out and a scar is formed
healing that is done by the same type of cells that are injured
increase in cell number
increase in cell size
change in cell type