A&P Lect 2 part 1

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Author:
rwischnewski
ID:
284579
Filename:
A&P Lect 2 part 1
Updated:
2014-10-01 13:21:23
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A&P
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A&P
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  1. maternal?
    contain the same genes
  2. alleles?
    homologous genes, may be identical or may express variations in their trait
  3. homozygous?
    alleles are identical
  4. heterozygous?
    alleles are different
  5. functions of the four tissue layers?
    • epithelium- barrier to environment
    • connective- support and protection
    • muscle- contraction
    • nervous- conduction of signals
  6. examples of epithelium?
    • linings of GI
    • GU
    • respiratory tracts
    • skin
  7. examples of connective tissue?
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • tendons
    • blood
  8. characteristics of the epithelium?
    • cells in thin sheets
    • cells rest on a basement membrane 
    • contains no blood vessels 
    • blood supply from underlying connective tissue
  9. describe fibers and cells of connective tissues?
    • collagen- tough, strong
    • reticular- form webs
    • elastic- have ability to recoil
  10. difference between loose and dense fibrous connective tissue?
    loose- more matrix than fibers

    dense- more fibers than matrix
  11. difference between cartilage and fibercartilage?
    elastic- pliable (bendable) and able to return to original shape

    fibrocartilage- heavy collagen fibers, very tough (unbendable)
  12. anatomy of a nerve cell?
    dendrite- cell body- axon- synapse
  13. 3 types of muscle
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  14. skeletal muscle?
    voluntary striated muscle found joining bones
  15. cardiac muscle?
    striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
  16. smooth muscle?
    non-striated, involuntary muscle found int eh walls of internal organs and blood vessels
  17. 3 types of cell to cell attachments?
    tight junctions- bands of protein that join adjacent cells together near their apical surface

    desmosomes- condensed patches of proteins in adjacent cell membranes with protein filaments running through them from one cell to the other 

    gap junctions- desmosome like cell attachments that have a hole through their middle allowing direct contact between the cytoplasm of one cell and the next
  18. two types of glands?
    exocrine- secretions are released through ducts

    endocrine- secretions released directly into the blood (no ducts)
  19. depolarization as it applies to a nerve cell, muscle cell
    nerve cell- ligand binding to ligand gated sodium channels cause sodium to enter cell, raising its resting membrane potential 

    muscle cell- at thresold, the increased voltage gated sodium channels and much more sodium comes into the cell 

    produces  contraction
  20. stages of would repair?
    • 1) blood clot forms
    • 2) immune cells below the clot clean up injury
    • 3) new blood vessels grow into the wound
    • 4) fibroblasts deposit collagen fibers to strengthen would (granulation tissue)
    • 5) epithelaiah cells from the surface fill in beneath the scab and scab falls off
    • 6) collagen fibers increase until the new vessels are crowded out and a scar is formed
  21. regeneration?
    healing that is done by the same type of cells that are injured
  22. hyperplasia?
    increase in cell number
  23. hypertophy?
    increase in cell size
  24. metaplasia?
    change in cell type

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