A&P 1 Chapters 2-4 Quiz 2 deck 2

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thom.mccusker@gmail.com
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A&P 1 Chapters 2-4 Quiz 2 deck 2
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2014-10-05 19:14:29
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quiz 2
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  1. Parts to the cell
    • 1. nucleus
    • 2. cytoplasm
    • 3.cell membrane (plasma membrane?)
  2. inside nucleus
    • 1. DNA
    • 2. RNA
    • 3. Chromosomes 46 (DNA resides on Chromosomes)
    • (sperm=23 egg=23)
  3. Cytoplasm
    • 1. area between cell membrane and nuclear membrane
    • 2. many organels
  4. histone
    is a protein... 8 proteins that help doube-stranded DNA wrap twice around. wh/ help organize the coiling and folding of DNA. (backbone of double stranded helix)
  5. miosis
  6. cell membrane is...
    semi-permiable or selectively permiable
  7. on the cell membrane we have...
    • 1. receptors
    • 2. gated channels
    • 3. facilitated channels
  8. facilitated channels let things go through how?
    • 1. active transport
    • 2. passive transport
  9. receptors
    bind to the surface of the cell membrane & then cause changes. (sometimes medicine will bind to the surface of the cell)
  10. cytosol
    • liquid in the cytoplasm - not a liquid or a solid
    • thick/viscous
  11. structures w/in the cytoplasm (organels)
    • some are involved in protein synthesis
    • 1. ribosomes
    • 2. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    •      SER - smooth & RER - rough
  12. ER is like a...
    transport system. the ribosomes build the proteins and release into ER. ER is like a tunnel passageway where newly formed proteins make their way to the cell membrane where they can be expelled via exocytosis into the general intracellular enviroment.
  13. ribosomes
    build the proteins and release the proteins in the ER
  14. golgi bodies
    involved with protein synthesis - (packaged?)
  15. what 3 organels are involved in protein synthesis?
    • 1. ribosomes
    • 2. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • 3. golgi bodies
  16. mitochodrion
    • power house of the cell
    • cellular respiration
    • electron transport system
    • the KREP cycle: takes stored E of ATP & converts it into ADP plus the high energy phoshate bond to provide E for cellular metabolism
    • (add more)
  17. mitochodrion shape
    elongated cucumber
  18. cisterna
    highly convoluted & highly structured enviroment inside the mitochondrion. it exponentially increase the surface area inside of the mitochondrion.  the increased surface area provides much space for the reactions to occur efficiently in the mitochodrion to produce E.
  19. lysosome
    • immunology - through the process of phagocytosis they engulf & destroy viruses $ bacteria that are in the cell.
    • housekeepers of the cell... also engulf dust particles/waste particles
  20. perioxosom
    clean waste product from cellular metabolism & processes & carry waste out of cell. (escort them out of the building"
  21. microtubules
    • structural - provide the skeletal structure
    • go from the nucleus to the cell membrane provide the stability to stop the cell from flopping on itself.
  22. cilium/flagellum
    • located on the outside membrane.
    • allow the cell to move
    • cilium are hair like
    • flagellum are larger and they whip
    • (characteristic of life to move)
  23. endocytosis
    something comes into the cell
  24. exocytosis
    something leaves the cell
  25. how do things leave the cell
    • evagination
    • depression
    • expulsion
  26. Events of the Somatic Cell Cycle
    • 1. interphase
    • 2. G1 phase
    • 3. S phase
    • 4. G2 phase
    • 5. Mitotic phase
    • 6. Mitosis
    • 7. Prophase
    • 8. Metaphase
    • 9. Anaphase
    • 10. Teolophase
    • 11. Cytokinesis
  27. G1 phase
    metabolically active cell duplicates most of its organelles and sytosolic components; replication of chromosomes begins. (cells that remain in the G1 phase for a very long time, and possibly never devide again, are said to be in the G0 phase.)
  28. S phase
    replication of DNA and centrosomes
  29. G2 phase
    cell growth, enzyme and protein synthesis continue; replication of centrosomes complete.
  30. mitotic phase
    parent cell produces identical cells w/ identical chromosomes; chromosomes visible under light microscope
  31. mitosis
    nuclear division; distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate nuclei
  32. prophase
    chromatin fibers condense into paired chromatids; nucleilus and nuclear envelope disappear; each centrosome moves to an opposite pole of the cell
  33. metaphase
    chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate
  34. anaphase
    • sister chromatids separate
    • centromeres split; identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell
  35. telophase
    • 1. cytokinesis
    • 2. nuclear envelopes and nucleili reappear
    • 3. chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell
  36. cytokinesis
    • 1. cytoplasmic division
    • 2. contractile ring forms cleavage furrow around center of cell
    • 3. deviding cytoplasm into separate and equal portions
  37. interphase
    • resulting cells - 2 separate cells (actually the start)
    • period between cell divisioins
    • chromosomes not visible under light microscope
  38. elements
    atoms
  39. ionic bonds
    • transfer of electrons
    • ie Na+Cl=CaCl
  40. covalent bonds
    • share an electron
    • (they can share equally)
  41. hydrogen bonds
    • occur when 2 other atoms or elements associate w/ hydrogen
    • (do not bond well)
  42. chemical reactions
    making or breaking bonds between atoms
  43. anabolic reaction
    • make a bond (create a new molecule)
    • use energy to create the bonds
  44. catabolic reaction
    • separate elements in a molecule
    • breaking bonds create energy
  45. synthesis reaction
    • anabolic create new molecule
    • decomposition reactions?
  46. catabolic reactions sometimes require
    catalyst or an enzyme
  47. exchange reaction
    • party anabolic & partly catabolic
    • AB+CD = AD+BC
  48. macro molecules of life
    • 1. complex carbs
    • 2. lipids
    • 3. nucleic acids
    • 4. proteins
  49. complex carbs
    structural material
  50. lipids
    energy source
  51. nucleic acids
    • (DNA/RNA)
    • heredity genes
  52. proteins
    • end product in cells
    • metabolic workers
    • 1. synthesized or made in cell
    • 2. long/short chains of amino acids
    • (many amino acids bonded by peptide bonds)
  53. amino acids (20)
    • combine to make proteins
    • functional group makes each amino acid different
  54. Hydrogen
    H 1
  55. Helium
    He 2
  56. Lithium
    Li 3
  57. Beryllium
    Be 4
  58. Boron
    B 5
  59. Carbon
    C 6
  60. Nitrogen
    N 6
  61. Oxygen
    O 8
  62. Fluorine
    F 9
  63. Neon
    Ne 10
  64. Sodium
    Na 11
  65. Magnesium
    Mg 12
  66. Aluminum
    Al 13
  67. Silicon
    Si 14
  68. Phosphorous
    P 15
  69. Sulfur
    S 16
  70. Chlorine
    Cl 17
  71. Argon
    Ar 18
  72. Potassium
    K 19
  73. Calcium
    Ca 20
  74. transcription
    • taking the DNA message from DNA to RNA
    • we are transcribing the message
  75. translation
    MRNA into protein
  76. skin (cutaneous membrane) stats
    • 1. covers external surface of body
    • 2. largest organ in weight
    • 3. 22 sq feet
    • 4. 10lbs (7% body wt)
    • 5. .5mm-4.0mm thick
  77. functions of integumentary system
    • 1. reg body temp
    • 2. stores blood
    • 3. Protects body from ext enviro
    • 4. detects cutaneous sensations
    • 5. excretes & absorbs substances
    • 6. syntesizes vit D
  78. integumentary system includes...
    • 1. skin
    • 2. hair
    • 3. oil glands
    • 4. sweat glands
    • 5. nails
    • 6. sensory receptors

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