A&P Lect 2 part 3
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where is the spongy bone found in adult long bones?
at the end of diaphsis
why does the kidney excrete extra phosphate when calcium levels rise?
to keep the concentrations in the blood below the solubility product
difference between total blood calcium and ionized (usable) calcium?
why does a rise in blood pH cause hypocalcemia?
increases protein binding
why does hypocalcemia produce tetany?
makes muscle cells easier to depolarize by raising resting membrane potential closer to threshold
anatomy of an osteon?
- central canal with blood supply
- lacunae with osteocytes
- canaliculi with osteocyte connection
3 types of bone cells?
osteoblasts- produce new bones
osteocytes- monitor bone density
osteoclasts- derived from blood cells, secrete acids, break down bone and release calcium
where are osteoblasts found in adult bone?
role of osteoclasts in new bone formation and in fracture healing?
osteoclasts chew up the cartilage model allowing replacement by new bone
ostoeclasts clean up the debris in injuries
what causes bone remodeling?
new stresses on the bone
what separates primary and secondary ossification centers?
- epiphysela plates
- metaphysis is the cartilage- bone transition
what happens if the kidney excretes extra phosphate and extra calcium?
the solubility product in the urine is exceeded (kidney stone)
characteristics of the 3 homromes invovled in calcium metabolism?
- calcitriol- icreases GI abosption of calicum
- raises blood calicum
- stimulates osteoclasts
parathyroid hormone- increases calium blood levesl by increasing kidney reabsoprtion of calcium, increading kdiney production of calcitriol, increasing osteoclast acitivty
calcitonin- decreases blood calcium by increasing activity of osteoblasts (stimulates new bone formation)
Fractures that occur because of new and repetitive stress on a bone are called _____.
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