Chapter 8 (Joints)
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Define range of motion(ROM)?
Is the amount of movement at a joint.
What are the 3 functional category of joints?
- 1. Synarthrosis (no movement).
- 2. Amphiarthrosis (little movement).
- 3. Diarthrosis (free movement).
What are the three types of synarthrotic
- 1. Fibrous: suture (between bones of the skull) and gomphosis (teeth to bony sockets).
- 2. Cartilaginous: synchondrosis (bridge between two articulating bones).
- 3. Bony: Synostosis (two bones fuse and the boundary between them disappears).
What are the two types of amphiarthoritic joints?
- 1. Fibrous: Syndesmosis (bones connected by a ligament).
- 2. Cartilaginous: Symphysis (articulating bones are separated by a pad of fibrocartilage).
Describe synovial joints?
Permit a wider range of motion than other joints. Typically located at the ends of long bones, upper/lower limbs.
What are the three components of synovial joint?
- 1. Articular cartilage
- 2. Joint/articular capsule
- 3. Synovial membrane
Describe articular cartilage?
Cartilage pad that covers the surface of a bone inside a joint cavity.
Describe joint/articular capsule?
Dense collagen fiber sleeve that surrounds a joint and provides protection and stabilization.
Describe synovial membrane?
Incomplete layer of fibroblasts facing the synovial cavity, plus the underlying loose connective tissue.
What are the three functions of synovial fluid?
- 1. Lubrication
- 2. Nutrient distribution
- 3. Shock absorption
What are the accessory structures supporting the knee?
Bursae, fat pads, meniscus, and accessory ligaments.
What is bursa?
Small sac filled with synovial fluid that cushions adjacent structures and reduces friction.
What is fat pads?
Protect the articular cartilage and acts as a packing material for the joint.
What is meniscus?
Fibrocartilage pad between opposing surfaces in a joint.
What are accessory ligaments?
- 1. Capsular ligaments are localized thickenings of the joint capsule.
- 2. Extrinsic ligaments may pass outside or inside the joint capsule.
Articulating surfaces are forced out of position.
What are the six types of synovial joints?
Gliding joint, hinge joint, pivot joint, condylar joint, saddle joint, and ball-and-socket joint.
Example of gliding joint?
Acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints, intercarpal and intertarsal joints, vertebrocostal joints, and sacroiliac joints.
Example of hinge joint?
Elbow joints, knee joints, ankle joints, and interphalangeal joints.
Example of pivot joint?
Atlantoaxial joint and proximal radioulnar joints.
Example of condylar joint?
Radiocarpal joints, metatarsophalangeal joints 2-5, and metatarsophalangeal joints.
Example of saddle joint?
First carpometacarpal joints.
Example of ball-and-socket joint?
Shoulder and hip joints.
What is bulging disc?
Is a displaced or partly protruding as a result of a compressed nucleus pulposus distorting the annulus fibrous.
What is a herniated disc?
Nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus fibrosus, causing it to protrude into the vertebral canal.
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