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Are first impressions often correct or wrong>?
- *validity of interview low
Why would first impressions not be right?
People are influenced by their expectations and stereotypes
Self fulfilling prophecies) summary on rosenhan experiemtn
-3 researchers faked that they were ill to be instituted in mental place. When they were admitted, they started to act normal once again. Even when they were acting normal, they were still treated like a mental person and when they were released they had remission schizo instead of sane
vazire & mehl study- voice recorder would record every 12.5 minutes for 30 secs to see what the person was doing- summary of results (2)
-participants and close people to participants predicted how often they engaged in each behaviors
- -they both predicted equally well. Same correlation number
- *there were certain things close people did better and there were certain things participant did well.
Your answer to the question of Who am I? reveals what?
Content of your self concept
What is self schemas?
Mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves.
How do we know that chimps, orangutans, gorillas, magpies, elephants, and dolphins have a rudimentary self concept?
They took the mark test
*it is a test in which if the animal staring at the mirror touches his own head where mark is then they do if they touch the mirror then they don't because they think its another animal has it
Does self concept stay the same in every situation or environment?
No, self concept varies by which environemtn you are in
*I am a talkative person but at UIC I hate everyone
What are working self concept?
Set of self conceptions we are aware of at any give point in time
*not all identities or components to your self concept will be available at one time.
What's self concept?
Picture of who you are
What are possible selves?
Self conceptions that describe what you could or want to be
*healthy successful, parent
What is ideal self? (2)
-Who we want to be
-determined by hopes, wishes, dreams
Ought self? (2)
-who we should be
-determined by a sense of duty, responsibility, or obligation
What factors determine our self concept? (6)
-roles we play
-social identities we form
-comparisons we make with others
-successes and failures
-how other people judge us
-culture that surrounds us
When do we tend to think less about our social identities?
When our group is part of the majority
What is social comparisons?
We evaluate our abilities and opinions in comparison to others
*social comparison theory
When do people compare themselves with others to assess their abilities and opinions
When absolute, objective standards are absent or when they feel uncertain
*test score of 87, what does it mean in terms relative to class performance
To whom do we compare ourselves?) similarity hypothesis
-ideally we would compare ourselves to someone in similar ability or a bit better than us
Test score rank study summary
- If I received my ranking 4 out of 7 ill most likely compare myself to 3rd place
- *according to festinger theory of similarity
**indicates a self accuracy motive
Test rank on negative trait summary
- if I'm given a ranking 4 out of 7 in the negative trait I will look at the person with highest score regarding the negative trait (the person that possess the negative trait
*self enhancement motive
Social comparison targets) downward comparisons
- Make us feel better about ourselves
- *self esteem
Social comparison targets) upward comparisons (3)
-can provide information about how to improve
-can inspire you to work towards your goals
-can also make you feel inferior
What's basic concept on Automaticity premise?
If we need to be efficient in our comparisons we should access a comparison quickly, without effort so we use targets we've used before even if they are not ideal anymore
- Ex) ideal= victor and I in running or lifting
- Ex) Automaticity premise= Jesus and I in lfiting
- *is this chair going to be comfortable?
- *ios this a good car?
Social comparison summary) what information do we get when we compare ourselves to similar others?
Accurate self knowledge
Social comparison summary) what information do we get when we compare ourselves to those who are better off (upward social comparisons)
Guidance but decreased self esteem
Social comparison summary) what information do we get when we compare ourselves to those who are worse off?
No guidance but increased self esteem
Social comparison summary) what information do we get when we compare ourselves to chronically assessable but not always ideal target?
Efficient self knowledge
Self concept- self esteem) summary (2)
-failure and problems lead to low self esteem AND low self esteem also leads to failure and problems
-we take into account successes and failures as indicators of what we are good and not good to icnropoorte into self concept
Self concept- how other people judge us) looking glass self
We view ourselves through the eyes of others and incorporate their perceptions of us into our self concept
*how others react to us is very important
Self concept- how other people judge us) important people are influential. Summary of pope and catholic students
Catholic students were exposed to scowling face of the pope or an unknown person. They then evaluetd themselves. They evaluated themselves more negatively when they viewed the pope scowling.
Self concept- culture that surrounds us) western cultures have independent views of self
- defining self in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, actions and not in terms of other people
- *less critical
Self concept- culture that surrounds us) other cultures, interdependent view of self
Defining self in terms of one's relationships to others, recognizing that ones behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, actions of other
*more self critical
Self concept- culture that surrounds us) 4 characteristics of independent self view
-self is stable
-goal is to be unique
-promote own goals
-happiness comes from feeling effective and superior
Self concept- culture that surrounds us) characteristics of interdependent self view (4)
-self is flexible
-goal is to belong
-promote group goals
-happiness come from feeling connected
Gender differences in self concept) women are more relational interdependent self concept
They focus more on close relationships such as how they feel about a spouse, child, bff
Gender differences in self concept) men are more collective interdependent self concept
They focus on their memberships in larger groups such as the fact that they are cubs fans or belong to a frat
What is introspection?
Process by which people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives
What are 2 problems with introspection?
-people don't rely on introspection as much as we think we might
- -even wen people do introspect, the reasons for their feelings or behaviors can be hidden from conscious awareness
- *why did you do this or that?
- *** we can be aware of the results of our thinking process without being aware of the process itself