Card Set Information
Natural habitat of its causative agent such as soil or water. Cannot shed microorganisms
Reservoir-like, can clinically infect and shed microorganism that cause disease
Can be any vertebrae, invertebrate, or inanimate object
Spread of disease following intimate contact with a carrier, or source of infection.
Ability to spread from infected to host
Transmission between members of same population
Transmission through generations
Direct physical contact or close contact between host and susceptible individuals
Direct contract transmission
Transmission involving transfer of infectious organisms from carrier to susceptible host by animate or inanimate intermediates (vehicles or fomites)
Dependent on ability of microorganisms to travel and survive in environment for long periods of times
Spread by arthropods most commonly transmitted through blood
Transmits infected agent without change in skin, no molts
Transmits infected agent with molting of agent while inside vector
Vector transfers organism to its offspring in ovary or placenta
Transfer of etiological agent through milk
Transfer from molting stages such as nymph to current host
Present at birth or develops in embryo or fetus in mother before or during pregnancy in uterus/placenta
Condition, disease or disorder that can be passed on from either one or both parents to offspring
Microorganisms are destroyed by clinical/physical means. All life forms including spores are killed
Immersing objects in disinfectant solution to reduce contamination
Cleaning measure intended to prevent disease and promote health
Destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms but not spores. Used on inanimate objects
Disinfectives used only on skin
Suggested disease not an act of god but from living organisms
Provided glass for microscope for direct observation of bacteria
Suggested specific disease is caused by a specific organism
Distinct cause of a disease.
Non-chlorophyll plants and divided into categories or molds and yeasts.
Unicellular which takes on 3 basic shapes.
Intracellular parasites, at some point in life cycle must use arthropods.
Smallest free-living organisms, no cell wall, resistant to antibiotics.
Pleuro-Pneumonia Like Organisms
Posses DNA or RNA, no enzyme systems, have living cells
Trauma, pressure, are examples of what?
Toxins, poisons, heavy metals are examples of what?
Parasites, bacteria, viruses, are examples of what?
Nutrition, temperature, and hygiene are examples of what?
Due to lack of dietary substances or inability to digest
Includes injuries such as lacerations, fractions, gun shots
Physical trauma diseases
Substances toxic to living tissues such as ingestion, absorption or inhalation
Involves multi-cellular organisms and unicellular organisms
Route of inoculation
Immune system antibodies (immunogolbulins)
Vaccine made from killed bacteria
Other things in vaccines
1) Remnants of cells in which infective agent was cultured
3) pH indicators
Added to vaccines to enhance immune response by causing inflammatory response
B cell immunity. No memory. Consists of B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and immunoglobulins.
T cell immnuity. No memory. T lymphocytes go to thymus to recognize unique markers on cells.
Cell mediated immunity.
Produce inflammatory mediators which regulate chronic inflammation
Modified lymphocytes that produce antibodies
Failure of immune response
1) Maternal antibodies
2) Human error
3) Preexisting infection
Why vaccines fail
1) Animals response
2) Handling and administration of vaccine
3) Maternal antibody
4) Strain in vaccine is different from strain needed
Hypersensitivity reaction which includes hives, facial swelling, shock, etc.
Lumps formed at vaccination site b/c of reaction of adjuvants
In cats, grave long-term prognosis.
Vaccine antigen and corresponding antibody are deposited in walls of small blood vessels
Inflammation of sclera, iris and cornia
Relationship of antibodies to antigen in ratios. 1:10 (high) 1:100 (low)
Patient that is parasitized by etiological agent
Relationship of various factors which determine frequency and distribution of infectious diseases
Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory
Development of morbid conditions of a disease
Center for disease control
: Ames, Iowa
: Atlanta, Georgia
Living organism that lives at expense of another microorganism called a host
Signs of a disease that can be visualized with the naked eye
Signs of disease deduced through tests
Inanimate object that maintains presence of etiology to pass along
Prevention of disease
All diseases possible based on symptoms
Most likely disease based on history of whats been seen lately
Absolute identification of disease based on clinical signs
Death within 24 hrs
Death within 48-72 hours
Mild clinical signs
No clinical signs
Harbors the etiology but never shows symptoms or clinical signs
Disease transmitted to man
Attacking many animals in any region at same time
Present in animal community at all times, occurring in only small numbers
Chemical releases and interfers with ability of virus to cause disease by preventing replication within host cell
Enzymes activated during infection and binds to invading cells and produced small holes in cell wall
4 kennel cough complexes
Canine parainfluenza virus
Canine adenovirus type 2
Canine corona virus
Coyote, dingo, wolf, fox
Ferret, mink, otter, skunk, weasel, etc.
Raccoon, kinkajou, red panda
Lion, cheetah, jaguar, etc.
Parvo major clinical sign
Corona clinical sign
Corona major symptom
Why we use CAV-2 vaccine?
1) Vaccinates for kennel cough
2) Cross vaccinvates for CAV-1 (Hepatitis)
Maintenance formula over 20 lbs
Maintenance formula under 20 lbs
3 areas affected by corneal edema?
with CRD watch for..?
1) High protein
2) Elevated BUN
Enlarged submandibular lymph nodes
National Institute of Health
American Veterinary Medical Association