Carters chapter 3 glossary terms

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Carters chapter 3 glossary terms
2014-10-01 17:26:39
ecology carter

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  1. Biodiversity
    The number and variety of life forms, including species, found within a specific region as well as the number and variety of ecosystems within and beyond that region.

    e.g: How many turtles are in a lake.
  2. Protect
    To guard legally from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern.

    e.g: An organization that protects endangered wildlife
  3. Canopy fogging
    A low dose of insecticide is sprayed up into the top of a tree, when the insects fall they are collected onto a large screen; canopy fogging is an effective way of collecting information about the biodiversity of insects.
  4. Quadrant sampling
    Counting all the living organisms in a set quadrant size; different species and their numbers are counted.

    e.g: Quadrant sampling in a field to see how many species live there.
  5. Transect sampling
    Using a transect line, a rope or measuring tape that has been marked at consistent intervals, the line is unrolled in the habitat, the type and number of species are recorded along the line.

    e.g: Transect sampling the shoreline of a lake to measure its biodiversity.
  6. Netting
    Are used to capture birds and bats in terrestrial ecosystems, and fish and other organisms in aquatic ecosystems; once captured an organism is identified.

    e.g: netting an area of a forest to identify the species that live there.
  7. Biodiversity hotspot
    A place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a relatively small area.

    e.g: The Leitrim Wetlands, near Ottawa, is home to more than 200 species of plants and 90 species of birds.
  8. Community
    All the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem.

    e.g: In a coral reef, the fish, sponges and corals are all part of the community
  9. Dominant species
    Species that are so abundant that they have the biggest biomass of any community member.

    e.g: Primary Producers
  10. Keystone species
    A species that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem.

    e.g: Sea Otters are Keystone predators. Without them their ecosystem does not function properly. They eat sea urchin and sea urchin eat kelp.
  11. Captive breeding
    The breeding of rare or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the population size.

    e.g: The black-footed ferret captive breeding program which nurtures black-footed ferrets, and endangered species.
  12. Ecosystem engineer
    A species that causes such dramatic change to landscapes that it creates a new ecosystem.

    e.g: A beaver can turn a small stream in a forest into an aquatic ecosystem that fits their needs perfectly.
  13. Succession
    The series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs overtime following a disturbance.

    e.g: By a beaver cutting down trees, that destroys the ecosystem of the birds and other species that lived in those trees.
  14. Habitat loss
    The destruction of habitat usually results from human activities.

    e.g: A construction project that involves destroying a forest to build houses. This causes habitat loss for all of the organisms that live in that forest.
  15. Deforestation
    The practice of clearing forests for logging or other human uses, and never replanting them.
  16. Alien species
    A species that is accidentally or deliberately introduced into a new location.

    e.g: If a King Cobra was found in Kitchener, it would be and alien species because it is not from this location.
  17. Invasive species
    A species that can take over the habitat of native species.

    e.g: Zebra Mussels.
  18. Overexploitation
    The use of extraction of a resource until it is depleted.

    e.g: Over hunting the deer in an area can deplete them.
  19. Extinction
    The death of all individuals of a species.

    e.g: All bangal tigers on earth die.
  20. Background extinction
    As ecosystems gradually change over long periods of time, some existing species become extinct while new species appear through evolution.
  21. Mass extinction
    Occurs when there is a relatively sudden change to Earth’s ecosystems, making them both unsustainable and un sustaining.
  22. Biodiversity crisis
    The current accelerated rate of extinctions.

    e.g: When forest is cut down it creates some biodiversity crisis.
  23. Stewardship
    The active assumption and responsibility for the welfare of the environment.

    e.g: Not littering is an act of stewardship.
  24. Restoration ecology
    The renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention.

    e.g: The filter ponds that were created in Toronto to help lake Ontario.
  25. Reforestation
    The regrowth of a forest either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down.
  26. Biocontrol
    The use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species

    e.g: Having a cat in your house that kills mice who enter your home.
  27. Bioremediation
    The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated area naturally.

    e.g: Using bacteria to break down oil in an oil spill.
  28. Bioaugmentation
    The use of organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils.

    e.g: Clover plants are used to add nitrogen to depleted soils.