Comp. Vert. Part II

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hw.hair
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284647
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Comp. Vert. Part II
Updated:
2014-10-01 19:40:31
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anatomy muscles
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anatomy
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muscles
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  1. Triceps brachii: three heads- arm

    Action: powerful forearm extensor; prime mover; antagonist of forearm flexors; long head assists in arm adduction
    • O: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula (long head); posterior shaft of humerus (lateral head); posterior humeral shaft distal to radial groove (medial head)
    • I:  by common tendon into olecranon porcess of ulna
  2. Anconeus: elbow

    Action: abducts ulna during forearm pronation; synergist of triceps brachii in elbow extension
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: lateral aspect of olecranon process of ulna
  3. Biceps brachii: two heads- arm

    Action: flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm; weak fleor of arm at shoulder
    • O:  coracoid process (short head); tubercle above and lip of glenoid cavity, tendon runs into intertubercular groove of humerus (long head)
    • I: by common tendon into radial tuberosity
  4. Brachialis: arm

    Action: a major forearm flexor
    • O:  front of distal humerus; embraces insertion of deltoid muscle (deltoid tuberosity of humerus)
    • I: coronoid process of ulna
  5. Brachioradialis: arm- radius

    Action: synergist in forearm flexion; stabilizes the elbow
    • O: lateral supracondylur ridge at distal end of humerus
    • I: base of styloid process of radius
  6. Pronator teres: turning palm posteriorly- round 

    Action: pronates forearm; weak elbow flexor
    • O: medial epicondyle of humerus; coronoid process of ulna
    • I: common tendon into lateral radius, midshaft
  7. Flexor carpi radialis: decrease angle between two bones- wrist- radius 

    Action: powerful flexor of wrist; abducts hand; weak synergist of elbow flexion
    • O: medial epicondyle of humerus
    • I: base of second and third metacarpals; insertion tendon easily seen
  8. Palmaris longus: palm- long

    Action: weak wrist flexor; tenses skin and fascia of palm during hand movements; weak synergist for elbow flexion
    • O: medial epicondyle of humerus
    • I: palmar aponeurosis; skin and fascia of palm
  9. Flexor carpis ulnaris: decrease angle between two bones- wrist- ulna

    Action: powerful flexor of wrist; adducts hand with extensor carpi ulnaris
    • O:  medial epicondyle; olecronon process of and posterior surface of ulna 
    • I: pisiform and hamate bones and base of 5th metcarpal
  10. Flexor digitorum superficialis: decrease angle between two bones- fingers- close to surface 

    Action: flexes wrist and middle phalanges of fingers 2-5; important flexor
    • O:  medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna; shaft of radius
    • I: by four tendons onto middle phalanges of fingers 2-5
  11. Flexor pollicis longus: decrease angle between two bones- thumb- long

    Action: flexes distal phalynx of thumb
    • O: anterior surface of radius and interosseus membrane
    • I: distal phalynx of thumb
  12. Flexor digitorum profundus: decrease angle between two bones- finger- deep

    Action: slow-acting flexor of any or all fingers; assists in flexing wrist; only muscle that can flex distal interphalangeal joints
    • O: coronoid porcess, anteromedial surface of ulna and interosseus membrane
    • I:  by four tendons into distal phalanges of fingers 2-5
  13. Pronator quadratus: turning palm down- square

    Action: prime mover of forearm pronation; acts with pronator teres
    • O: distal portion of anterior ulnar shaft
    • I: distal surface of anterior radius
  14. Extensor carpi radialis longus: increase angle between two bones- wrist- radius- long

    Action: extends wrist in conjunction  with extensor carpi ulnaris and abducts wrist in conjunction with flexor carpi radialis
    • O: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • I: base of second metacarpal
  15. Extensor carpi radialis brevis: increase angle between two bones- wrist- radius- short

    Action: extends and abducts wrist; acts synergistically with extensor carpi radials longus to steady wrist during finger flexion
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: base of third metacarpal
  16. Extensor digitorum: increase angle between two bones- fingers

    Action: prime mover of finger extension; extends wrist; can abduct (flare) fingers
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus
    • I: by four tendons into extensor expansions and distal phalanges of fingers 2-5
  17. Extensor carpi ulnaris: decrease angle between two bones- wrist- ulna 

    Action: extends wrist in conjunction with the extensor carpi radials and adducts wrist in conjunction with flexor carpi ulnaris
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
    • I: base of fifth metacarpal
  18. Supinator: turning palm upward 

    Action: assists biceps brachii to forcibly supinate forearm; atagonist of pronator muscles
    • O: lateral epicondyle of humerus; proximal ulna
    • I:  proximal end of radius
  19. Abductor pollicis longus: movement away from median plane- thumb-long

    Action: abducts and extends thumb; abducts wrist
    • O: posterior surface of radius and ulna; interosseus membrane
    • I: base of first metacarpal and trapezium
  20. Extensor pollicis brevis and longus: increase angle between two bones- thumb- short and long

    Action: extends thumb
    • O: dorsal shaft of radius and ulna; interosseus membrane 
    • I: base of proximal (brevis) and distal (longus) phalanx of thumb
  21. Extensor indicis: increase angle between two bones- index finger

    Action: extends index finger and assists in wrist extension
    • O: posterior surface of distal ulna; interosseus membrane 
    • I: extensor expansion of index finger; joins tendon of extensor digitorum 
  22. Abductor pollicis brevis: movement away from median plane- thumb- wrist

    Action: abducts thumb
    • O: flexor retinaculum and nearby carpals 
    • I: lateral base of thumb's proximal phalanx
  23. Flexor pollicis brevis: decrease angle between two bones-thumb- short 

    Action: flexes thumb
    • O: flexor retinaculum and trapezium
    • I: lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  24. Adductor pollicis: movement towards median plane- thumb

    Action: adducts and helps to oppose thumb
    • O: capitate bone and bases of metacarpals 2-4; front of metacarpal 3
    • I: medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
  25. Flexor digiti minimi brevis: decrease angle between two bones- little finger- short 

    Action: flexes little finger at metacarpophalangeal joint
    • O: hamate bone and flexor retinaculum
    • I: medial side of proximal phalanx of little finger
  26. Abductor digiti minimi: movement away from median plane- little finger

    Action: abducts little finger at metacarpophalngeal joints
    • O: pisiform bone
    • I: medial side of proximal phalanx of little finger
  27. Opponens digiti minimi: opposistion- little finger

    Action: helps in opposition: brings metacarpal 5 towards thumb
    • O: hamate bone and flexor retinaculum
    • I: most length of medial side of metacarpal 5
  28. Lumbricalis: earthworm

    Action: flex fingers at metacarpophalangeal joints but extends fingers at interphalangeal joints
    • O: lateral side of each tendon of flexor digitorum profundus in palm 
    • I: lateral edge of extensor expansion on first phalanx of fingers 2-5
  29. Palmar interossei: palm- between bones 

    Action: adductors of fingers; pull fingers in toward third digit; act with lumbricalis to extend fingers and interphalangeal joints and flex the at metacarpophalangeal joints
    • O: the side of each metacarpal that faces the midaxis of the hand (except finger 3)
    • I: extensor expansion on first phalanx of each finger (except 3) on side facing midaxis of heand
  30. Dorsal Interossei: back- between bones

    Action: abduct (diverge) fingers; extend fingers at interphalangeal joints and flex them at metacarpophalangeal joints
    • O: sides of metacarpals
    • I: extensor expansion over first phalanx of fingers 2-4 on side opposite midaxis of hand (except finger 3) but on both side of finger 3

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