A & P Chap 3

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o904halo
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28467
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A & P Chap 3
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2010-07-30 20:57:30
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Tissues Membranes
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Tissues and Membranes
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  1. 4 major types of tissue
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  2. collection of a group of cells that have a similar function
    tissue
  3. tissue found throughout the body and covers all the body surfaces
    epithelial tissue
  4. thing layer of tissue that binds the underlying connective tissue layer to upper tissue layers
    basement membrane
  5. functions of the epithelial functionspr
    • protection
    • excretion and secretion
    • diffuse
    • cleaning
    • absorption
    • sensation
  6. forms the lining of the mouth, blood vessels, heart, lungs and outer layer of the skin
    simple squamous epithelium
  7. tissue found in glands, gland ducts and the lining of the kidney tubules, produces eggs cells and sperm cells
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  8. forms the lining of the uterus, stomach and intestines
    simple columnar epithelium
  9. produce mucus to lubricate intestinal wall
    goblet cells
  10. composed of single columnar epithelium tissue, produces motion that directs mucus to flow in specific direction
    ciliated columnar epithelium
  11. columnar epithelium with mucus producing cells
    glandular epithelium
  12. gland that communicates with the surface thru an unbranched duct
    simple gland
  13. multi-lobed gland, with a branched duct arising from each lobe
    compound gland
  14. several layers of epithelium cells, where the body is exposed to conditions tat cause wear and tear
    stratified squamous epithelium
  15. tissue designed to handle tension in tissues, lines the wall of the urinary bladderm urethra and ureters
    transitional epithelium
  16. supports the body and binds together all types of tissue
    connective
  17. provides framework of the body
    connective
  18. tissue that forms space between the organs
    loose connective
  19. 3 types of loose connective tissues
    • areolar
    • adipose
    • reticular
  20. "white fibers"- thick fibers composed of protein collagen, keeps separate structures together
    collagenous fibers
  21. "yellow fibers" - made of protein elastin, found in areas that require stretching
    elastin fibers
  22. most widely spread tissue, surrounds organs, lies under epithelium, provides support to nerves for transport to nutrients to epithelial cells
    areolar tissue
  23. most common cell types in connective tissues
    fibroblasts
  24. "macrophages" designed to carry out phagocytes , a major function of immune system that scavenges foreign particles from tissue to prevent infections
    histiocytes
  25. located near blood vessels, manufactures heparin and histamine
    mast cells
  26. constructed of specialized cells called adipocytes that store fat droplets within their cytoplasm
    adipose tissue
  27. consists of a network of delicate collagenous fibers that mechanically support the liver, bone marrow, spleen and lymphoid organs
    reticular tissue
  28. tissue that forms tendons, ligaments and aponeuroses
    dense connective tissue
  29. tissue that is made of dense, thick, collagenous fibers and network of delicate elastic fibers
    fibrous connective
  30. tissue that is made up of yellow, elastic fibers that are either branched or run in parallel strands
    elastic connective
  31. tissue that consists of cartilage, bone, blood and hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissues
    specialized connective tissue
  32. 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  33. cartilage that occurs at the ends of bones in joints, supporting rings of respiratory airway and soft portion of nose
    hyaline
  34. matrix of dense elastic fibers and more flexible than hyaline
    elastic cartilage
  35. dense, tough tissue with many collagenous fibers embedded within the matrix
    fibrocartilage
  36. hardest of connective tissues because it contains mineral salts with a large amount of collagen serving as intercellular matrix
    bone
  37. enables support and movement, protects organs, and contains red marrow
    skeleton
  38. thin layers that bone matrix is deposited in
    lamellae
  39. cavities lying in between or within lamellae
    lacunae
  40. is unique connective bc its intercellular matrix is composed of liquid in which cells are suspend
    blood
  41. forms RBC and WBC
    hematopoietic tissues
  42. formed with red bone marrow
    RBC
  43. formed by lymphoid organs
    WBC
  44. tissue composed of various cells that are phagocytic, attack foreign invaders of the body and ingest them
    reticuloendothelial
  45. relaxes and contracts, causes movement that brings about locomotion and other internal movement necessary for survival
    muscle tissue
  46. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • smooth
    • cardiac
    • skeletal
  47. muscle tissue that controls slow contractions of the walls of stomach and intestines, controls artery wall contractions to regulate blood pressure, and controls uterine wall
    smooth muscle
  48. muscle tissue that coordinates movement of limbs, eyes, trunk, and jaws
    skeletal
  49. muscle tissue that controls the contraction of the atria and ventricles of the heart
    cardiac muscle tissue
  50. tissue that is made up of neurons, found in brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
    nerve tissue
  51. made up of many neurons that bond together by connective tissue
    nerve tissue
  52. thin sheetlike structures composed of connective and epithelial tissues, lines body cavities and covers body surfaces
    membranes
  53. 4 major types of membranes
    • serous
    • mucous
    • cutaneous
    • synovial
  54. membrane that lines body cavities that do not open to the outside of the body
    serous
  55. membranes that covers the organs within the abdomen and thorax, forms the inner lining of those cavities
    serous
  56. epithelial membranes that line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body
    mucous membranes
  57. 'skin', is an organ of the integumentary system
    cutaneous membrane
  58. lines the inner linings of freely moveable joints between the ends of the bones
    synovial membranes
  59. intentional cut thru intact tissue for the purpose of exposing underlying structures
    incisions
  60. removal of tissue
    excision
  61. incision is made under ideal conditions and aseptic technique is not broken, no wound drain
    class I clean
  62. after primary closure, but the wound is drained and minor break in aseptic tech or tech was entered
    class II clean contaminated
  63. open traumatic wound is encountered, tract was entered or major break in aseptic tech
    class III contaminated
  64. open traumatic wound in which microbial contamination had previously occured
    class IV dirty infected
  65. 3 types of healing
    • first intention
    • second intention
    • third intention
  66. optimal type of healing, tissues heal from side to side without infection
    first intention (primary union)
  67. space between tissue layers that can accumulate fluids and lead to infection
    dead space
  68. 3 phases of first intention healing
    • lag
    • proliferation
    • maturation or differentiation
  69. phase that begins within minutes of injury and lasts approx 3-5 days
    lag
  70. phase that starts the 3rd day and goes up to 20 days
    proliferation
  71. healing that takes place from bottom upward, wound fills with granulation tissue, occurs in large wounds
    second intention healing
  72. healing that occurs when 2 granulated surfaces were approximated and is employed when wound is infected, dirty and contaminated
    third intention healing
  73. partial or total separation of a layer or layers of tissue after closure,
    dishisence
  74. genetic markers on the surface of most of white blood cells
    human leukocyte antigen
  75. test that identifies an identifies a persons HLAs (human leukocyte antigen)
    tissue typing
  76. code for the production of specific glycoprotein antigens that recognizes each individuals tissues and targets as foreign those different from that individuals tissue
    major histocompatibility complex MHC
  77. protrusion of viscera thru edges of totally separate wound
    evisceration
  78. uncontrolled bleeding that can occur immediately following a procedure and can lead to hypovolemic shock
  79. abnormal attachment of 2 surfaces or structures that are normally separate
    adhesions
  80. result of wound dehiscence that could cause incarceration of the bowel
    herniation
  81. tract between 2 epithelium lined surfaces, opened at both ends
    fistula
  82. hypertrophic scar formation that occurs mainly in dark skin individuals
    keloid scarring
  83. tract between 2 epithelium lined surfaces that is only opened at one end
    sinus track

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