Exam1 Q1-DRI values .txt
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Estimated AVERAGE requirement: calculated as the MEAN from a large # of experiments on ppl related to intake of specific nutrition to optimal FXN of MET processes and/or CELL fxns, depending on the nutrient
- Recommended Dietary Allowance: 2 STDEVs ABOVE the MEAN (from EAR)
- Should encompass 98% of population’s needs
- Adequate Intake: Only when INSUFFICIENT DATA to do proper statistics based on intake studies of Apparently Healthy individuals.
- This is used to ESTIMATE RDA only IF sufficient numbers of ppl have been tested
(Tolerable) Upper limit: HIGHEST intake of nutrient that poses minimal risk of toxic effects. Based on case by case and small studies of extreme intake
Diff b/w RDA and AI
- Both Based on research on metabolic fxn of nutrient and optimal amts to MAXIMIZE that FXN.
- RDA is calculated by statistics taking into account 98% of population: gives 2 stdev’s above the mean intake
- AI is estimate of what the RDA MIGHT be: based on only a SMALL AMOUNT of research on a Few ppl
What were and why were Vitamin C RDA values change
- Ascorbic acid RDAs increased 25%
- This was due to new measurement techniques: Maximizing neutrophil uptake of ascorbic acid with minimal excretion via the urine.
Function of Vitamin C and its relation to RDA determination
- Neutrophils rely on uptake Vitamin C in order for this nutrient to have an antioxidant role for neutrophils to fxn with their role of killing bacteria w/oxygen radicals and other oxidants
- This biological fxn demands the HIGHEST dietary intake of Ascorbic acid compared to other fxns, so it is the RELEVANT MEASURE
Function of Vitamin E and its change in RDA
- Vitamin E values increased 100%!
- RDA based on measure of relating dietary intake of a-tocopherol (type of Vit E) to plasma levels of a-tocopherol and the fxn of preventing erythrocyte lysis.
- This measure DIRECTLY determines the anti-oxidant fxn of a-tocopherol in a VALID biological role and that different forms of tocopherols are NOT metabolically interchangeable…ONLY alpha-tocopherol can be considered
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