Exam 2 study guide - lipids.txt

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  1. **Essential fatty acids
    • Single chain hydrocarbons:
    • The Omega 6 FA: LINOLEIC
    • Omega 3 FA: A-LINOLENIC
  2. **What does Linoleic acid make, and what does that produce?
    • Linoleic (Omega-6) Synthesizes Arachidonic Acid (AA)
    • AA makes both pro and anti-inflam
    • PRO: prostoglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes
    • and also…ANTI-inflam: LIPOXINS (Sends STOP signals for inflammation)
  3. **What does alpha-linoleic acid make, and what do they produce?
    • A-linolenic produces EPA and DHA
    • EPA and DHA made into ANTI-inflammatory: RESOLVINS (Lipitor), PROTECTINS, MARESINS
  4. **How much Linoleic and A-linolenic acid do we need!?
    • Linoleic: 12f and 17m Grams//day
    • A-linolenic acid: 1.1f and 1.6m Grams/day
    • 10-35% of total calories! …TYPE of fat is IMPORTANT to determine if you get the amount of essential fatty acids needed/day
    • Flax seed is best w/14% linoleic and 50-60% a-linolenic
    • Milk is also good source
    • Salmon has already EPA and DHA in there…so a-linolenic component almost covered
  5. Real Deal with Trans Fat
    • Eiconsapentaenoic acid in CIS has an OPEN bay region where hydroxyl radicals can come in and access the double bonds
    • This EPA in Trans form does not give the radicals this easy access..therefore does NOT go rancid as easily
  6. Cholesterol
    • Made of 3 6-carbon chains and a 5-Hydrocarbon ring
    • Aids in Production of STEROID Hormones and BILE
  7. Fat makes what?
    • Fatty acids play a role in Membrane Phospholipids
    • Synthesizing BILE from cholesterol and Free fatty acids
    • Synthesizing Steroid hormones from cholesterol
    • Absorption of fat sol vitamins (A,D,E,K)
  8. Types of lipids
    • Fatty acids: single chain hydrocarbons
    • Triglycerides: 3-carbon GLYCEROL with 3-FAs carbons attached
    • Diglyceries: Above with 2-carbons attached
    • monoglycerides: above with 1-carbon attached
    • Phospholipids: GLYCEROL with FAs attached to carbon 1&2 with phospho at 3rd
    • Cholesterol: 3 6-carbon and 1-hydrocarbon ring (produces steroids)
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Exam 2 study guide - lipids.txt
applied nutrition
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