Exam 2 study guide - lipids.txt
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**Essential fatty acids
- Single chain hydrocarbons:
- The Omega 6 FA: LINOLEIC
- Omega 3 FA: A-LINOLENIC
**What does Linoleic acid make, and what does that produce?
- Linoleic (Omega-6) Synthesizes Arachidonic Acid (AA)
- AA makes both pro and anti-inflam
- PRO: prostoglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes
- and also…ANTI-inflam: LIPOXINS (Sends STOP signals for inflammation)
**What does alpha-linoleic acid make, and what do they produce?
- A-linolenic produces EPA and DHA
- EPA and DHA made into ANTI-inflammatory: RESOLVINS (Lipitor), PROTECTINS, MARESINS
**How much Linoleic and A-linolenic acid do we need!?
- Linoleic: 12f and 17m Grams//day
- A-linolenic acid: 1.1f and 1.6m Grams/day
- 10-35% of total calories! …TYPE of fat is IMPORTANT to determine if you get the amount of essential fatty acids needed/day
- Flax seed is best w/14% linoleic and 50-60% a-linolenic
- Milk is also good source
- Salmon has already EPA and DHA in there…so a-linolenic component almost covered
Real Deal with Trans Fat
- Eiconsapentaenoic acid in CIS has an OPEN bay region where hydroxyl radicals can come in and access the double bonds
- This EPA in Trans form does not give the radicals this easy access..therefore does NOT go rancid as easily
- Made of 3 6-carbon chains and a 5-Hydrocarbon ring
- Aids in Production of STEROID Hormones and BILE
Fat makes what?
- Fatty acids play a role in Membrane Phospholipids
- Synthesizing BILE from cholesterol and Free fatty acids
- Synthesizing Steroid hormones from cholesterol
- Absorption of fat sol vitamins (A,D,E,K)
Types of lipids
- Fatty acids: single chain hydrocarbons
- Triglycerides: 3-carbon GLYCEROL with 3-FAs carbons attached
- Diglyceries: Above with 2-carbons attached
- monoglycerides: above with 1-carbon attached
- Phospholipids: GLYCEROL with FAs attached to carbon 1&2 with phospho at 3rd
- Cholesterol: 3 6-carbon and 1-hydrocarbon ring (produces steroids)
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