BSAT 303 Midterm

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BSAT 303 Midterm
2014-10-02 14:13:06
BSAT 303
Midterm study guide for BSAT 303
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  1. What is application software for a specific industry? Give examples
    • vertical market software
    •  a. patient-scheduling software
    •  b. restaurant management software
  2. What is application software suitable for use in many industries? Give examples
    • Horizontal market software
    •  a. payroll,  inventory, and billing
  3. Field (or group of fields) that uniquely describes each record.
    primary key
  4. primary key of one file that appears in another file (when PK is in another table)
    foreign key
  5. when you define more than one column as your primary key on a table
    composite primary key
  6. What is the purpose of Porter's Five Forces Model?
    It helps business people understand the relative attractiveness of an industry and the industry's competitive pressures.
  7. What are the five forces in Porter's Model?
    • 1. buyer power
    • 2. supplier power
    • 3. threat of substitute products or services
    • 4. threat of new entrants
    • 5. rivalry among existing competitors
  8. What are Porter's 3 Generic Strategies for beating the competition?
    • 1. overall cost leadership (broad market scope; low-cost competency)
    • 2. differentiation (broad market scope; unique competency)
    • 3. focus (narrow market scope; unique competency; low-cost competency)
  9. What is considered to  be "above-the-line"?
    • increase revenue (total sales)
    •  - reach new customers
    •  - offer new products
    •  - cross-selling
    •  - offering complimentary products
  10. What is considered to be "below-the-line"?
    • minimize expenses
    •  - optimizing manufacturing processes
    •  - decreasing transportation costs
    •  - minimizing errors in a process
  11. What is "the bottom line"?
    total sales minus total expenses
  12. Describe the "run-grow-transform" framework.
    • run: optimizing execution of existing processes (= overall cost leadership = below the line)
    • grow: increasing market share, products, and service offerings (= focus & differentiation = above the line)
    • transform: innovating business processes, products, and services (=new differentiation = above the line [when focus is innovation])
  13. Computer hardware: input device
    enter information and commands
  14. Give examples of computer hardware input devices.
    • pointing devices (mouse, trackball, touchpad, pointing stick)
    • game controllers (gaming wheel, joystick, gamepad)
    • keyboards/styluses
    • scanners (image, bar code, biometric)
    • cameras (digital stills, digital videos, webcam)
    • microphones
  15. Computer hardware: output device
    hear, see, or otherwise recognize the results of information-processing requests
  16. Give examples of computer hardware output devices.
    • monitors (CRTs, Flat Panel Displays[LCD, Gas Plasma])
    • printers (inkjet, laser, multi-function, plotter)
    • speakers
  17. Computer hardware: storage device
    store information for use at a later time
  18. Give examples of computer hardware storage devices.
    • magnetic (hard disk)
    • optical (CD [-rom, -r, -rw], DVD [-rom, -r, +r, -rw, +rw])
    • flash (flash memory devices, flash memory cards [xD-Picture Card, Secure digital Card, Compact Flash Card, SmartMedia Card, memory stick media])
  19. Computer hardware: telecommunications device
    send information to and receive it from another person or computer in a network
  20. Give example of computer hardware telecommunications device.
    cable modem
  21. What are the types of computers?
    • Personal digital assistant (PDA)
    • Tablet PC
    • Notebook computer
    • Desktop computer
  22. small handheld computer for personal tasks like appointment scheduling and address book maintenance
    personal digital assistant (PDA)
  23. pen-based computer with the functionality of a notebook or desktop
    tablet PC
  24. small, portable, fully functional, battery-powered computer
    notebook computer
  25. most popular type of personal computer
    desktop computer
  26. What are the types of software?
    • application software
    • systems software
  27. (software) enables you to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks
    application software
  28. (software) handles tasks specific to technology management and coordinates the interaction of all technology devices
    systems software
  29. What are the two types of systems software?
    • operating system software
    • utility software
  30. (systems software) controls application software and manages hardware devices
    operating system software
  31. (systems software) provides additional functionality to your operating system. Give examples
    • utility software
    •  - anti virus
    •  - screen saver
  32. raw facts that describe a particular phenomenon such as the current temperature, the price of movie rental, or your age
  33. data that has a particular meaning within a specific context
  34. collective information about 
     - customers
     - competitors
     - business partners
     - competitive environment
    Business intelligence (BI)
  35. Why is BI (business intelligence) important?
    • it's info on steroids
    • can help you make important, strategic decisions
    • often combines multiple sets of information - customers, salespeople, and purchases in this case
  36. broad term that can describe many things 
    (contextual explanation for business intelligence, actions to take to affect BI, intellectual assets such as patents/trademarks, organizational know-how for things such as best practices)
  37. the process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy
    rule of normalization
  38. Normalization usually involves dividing _______ and defining ______.
    • large tables into smaller tables
    • relationships between the tables
  39. What is the objective of normalization?
    to isolate data so that additions, deletions, and modifications, of a field can be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the database using the defined relationships.
  40. planning for, development, management, and use of IT tools to help people perform all tasks related to information processing and management
  41. Name the 3 key resources in MIS:
    • 1. information
    • 2. people
    • 3. information technology
  42. computer-based tools that people use to work with information
    information technology (IT)
  43. What are examples of information tech?
    • hardware (physical device that makes up a computer [input device, output device, storage device, CPU, telecommunications device, connecting devices])
    • software (set of instructions that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task [application software, system software])
  44. What is a CPU (hardware)?
    hardware that interprets and executes instructions
  45. ____ temporarily stores information and software for the CPU.
  46. Give some example of application software.
    • word
    • payroll
    • inventory management
  47. Give some examples of system software.
    • operating system
    • anti-virus
  48. contains the logical structure for the information in a database
    data dictionary
  49. Before you can enter information into a database, you must define _________ for all the tables and their fields.
    the data dictionary
  50. How does information flow?
    • upward
    • downward
    • horizontal
    • outward/inward
  51. (Flow of information) describes state of the organization based on transactions
    upward (↑current state of the organization)
  52. (Flow of information) strategies, goals, and directives that originate at a higher level and are passed to lower levels
    downward (↓)
  53. (Flow of information) between functional business units and work teams
    horizontal (⇆)
  54. (Flow of information) from and to customers, suppliers, distributors, and other partners
  55. Describe the information granularity in the pyramid of flow of information
    • ↑ coarse granularity
    • ↓ fine granularity
  56. _____ MUST drive ______.
    • Business 
    • technology
  57. What is the most important resource in Management Information Systems (MIS)?
  58. principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people
    ethics (you want to be both ethical and legal)
  59. Buyer power is high when they have ____ and low when they have _____.
    • many choices
    • few choices
  60. providing a product or service in a way that customers value more than what the competition is able to do
    competitive advantage
  61. significant impact on gaining market share by being the first to market with a competitive advantage
    first-mover advantage
  62. Supplier power is high when ____ and low when _______.
    • people have few choices
    • people have many choices
    • (opposite of buyer power)
  63. The threat of substitute products and services is high when _______ and low when _____.
    • there are many alternatives for buyers
    • there are few alternatives for buyers
  64. a cost that makes buyers reluctant to switch to another product/service
    • switching cost
    • (these can reduce the threat of substitute products and services)
  65. The threat of new entrants is high when ______ and low when _______.
    • it is easy to enter the market
    • entry barriers are significant
  66. product or service feature that customers have come to expect and that must be offered by an entering organization.
    entry barrier
  67. Rivalry among existing competitors is high when ____ and low when _______.
    • competition is fierce
    • competition is more complacent
  68. _____ has intensified competition in all sectors of business.
  69. offering the same or better quality product or service at a price that is less than what any of the competition is able to do
    overall cost leadership
  70. offering a product or service is perceived as being "unique" in the marketplace
  71. pin-point on offering products or services to a particular segment or buyer group, withing a segment of a product line, or to a specific geographic market
  72. the allocation in terms of percentages of IT dollars on various types of business strategies
    run-grow-transform framework (RGT)
  73. systematic approach to assessing and improving the value of business processes
    value-chain analysis
  74. chain or series of business processes, each of which adds value to your organization's products or services.
    value chain
  75. standardized set of activities that accomplishes a specific task
    business process
  76. There are two types of Business Processes:
    primary and support
  77. takes in raw materials and makes, delivers, markets/sells, and services your products and services
    primary value process
  78. supports the primary value processes
    support value process
  79. any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization
    Information technology
  80. set of instructions that hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you
  81. hardware that interprets and executes software and coordinates all hardware
  82. temporary holding area for information and software
  83. (computers) meets needs of several people simultaneously in a small or medium-sized business
    minicomputer (mid-range computer)
  84. (computers) meets needs of hundreds of people in a large business
    mainframe computer
  85. (computers) fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer
  86. (software) helps you perform personal tasks. Ex: Microsoft Programs (word, pp, excel)
    personal productivity software
  87. (software) several applications bundled together [usually productivity software]
    software suite
  88. (personal productivity software) helps you create letters, memos, and other basic documents
    word processing
  89. (personal productivity software) helps you work with numbers, perform calculations and create graphs
  90. (personal productivity software) helps you create and edit information that will appear in slides
  91. (personal productivity software) extends word processing by including design and formatting techniques to enhance the appearance of the document
    desktop publishing
  92. (personal productivity software) helps you create and maintain to-do lists, appointments, calendars
    personal information management (PIM)
  93. (personal productivity software) helps you maintain your checkbook and handle other personal finance tasks
    personal finance
  94. (personal productivity software) helps you design and develop Web sites
    Web authoring
  95. (person productivity software) helps you create and edit photos and art
  96. (personal productivity software) helps you communicate with others
  97. (personal productivity software) helps you specify the logical organization for a database; access and use the information within a database
    database management system (DBMS)
  98. (utility software) detects and removes or quarantines computer viruses
    anti-virus software
  99. (utility software) helps save information if your system crashes
    crash-proof software
  100. (utility software) removes software from your hard disk
    uninstaller software
  101. (utility software) organizes information on your hard disk
    disk optimization software
  102. (utility software) filters unwanted e-mail
    spam blocker
  103. What are the representations of information?
    • binary digit (bit)
    • byte
    • ASCII
  104. smallest unit of information your computer can process
    binary digit (bit)
  105. eight bits or the number of bits it takes to represent one natural character
  106. coding system that personal computers use
    ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
  107. most frequently used input devices for notebooks and desktops to enter information and commands
  108. most frequently used input devices for PDAs and tablet PCs to enter information and commands
  109. used to convert information that exists in visible form into electronic form
  110. (scanners) detects the presence or absence of a mark
    optical mark reader
  111. (scanners) reads characters that appear on paper or sales tag [used in POS systems]
    optical character reader
  112. (scanner) scans a human physical attribute, like a fingerprint or iris, for security purposes
    biometric scanner
  113. captures still image or video as a series of 1s and 0s
    digital camera (still, video, webcam)
  114. (monitors) monitors that look like traditional TV sets
  115. (monitors) thin, lightweight monitors that take up much less space than CRTs
    flat-panel display
  116. (flat-panel monitors) sends electrically through crystallized liquid between layers of glass or plastic
    Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor
  117. (flat-panel monitors) sends electrically through gas trapped between layers of glass or plastic
    Gas plasma display
  118. (monitor considerations) the size of the image on a monitor
    viewable image size (VIS)
  119. (monitor considerations) the number of pixels it has
    resolution of a screen
  120. (monitor considerations) the dots that make up the image
    pixels (picture elements)
  121. (monitor considerations) the distance between the centers of two like-colored pixels
    dot pitch
  122. (printers) makes images by forcing ink through nozzles
    inkjet printer
  123. (printers) forms images using the same electrostatic process that photocopiers use
    laser printer
  124. (printers) scan, copy, and fax, as well as print
    multifunction printer
  125. (printers) forms output by moving pen across paper
  126. What are the 3 capacities of storage devices
    • megabyte (MB or M or Meg)
    • gigabyte (GB or Gig)
    • terabyte (TB)
  127. _____ about 1 million bytes
    _____ about 1 billion bytes
    _____ about 1 trillion bytes
    • mega
    • giga
    • tera
  128. magnetic storage with one or more thin metal platters sealed inside the drive
    hard disk
  129. plastic discs on which information is stored, deleted, and changed using laser technology
    optical storage media (CDs & DVDs)
  130. (CDs) information cannot be changed
    CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory)
  131. (CDs) write one time only
    CD-R (compact disc - recordable)
  132. (CDs) save, change, and delete files repeatedly
    CD-RW (compact disc - rewritable)
  133. very small storage device that plugs into USB port
    flash memory device
  134. high capacity storage laminated inside a small piece of plastic
    flash memory card
  135. ____ and ___ work together to form the brain of your computer
    • CPU
    • RAM
  136. CPU speed is measured in ____
  137. what is the CPU machine cycle?
    retrieve, decode, and execute instruction, then return result to RAM if necessary
  138. (CPU components) directs what happens in the CPU and the rest of your computer
    control unit
  139. (CPU components) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logic operations
    arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
  140. (CPU component) CPU memory where instructions wait until they're needed
    CPU cache
  141. (CPU component) beats to keep instructions and information moving in synchronized fashion
    CPU clock
  142. electrical pathways that move information between mother board components, especially between CPU and RAM
    system bus
  143. (CPU machine cycle) the control unit sends to RAM for the instructions and information it needs
  144. (CPU machine cycle) CPU gets the instruction out of cache and examine sit to see what to do
  145. (CPU machine cycle) does what the instruction says to do
  146. (CPU machine cycle) sends the result of processing to be stored in RAM if necessary
  147. place your system unit, monitor, or keyboard through which information and instructions flow to and from computer
  148. something like a cable; can also be wireless
  149. (ports and connectors) operating system feature that finds and installs the driver for the device
    plug and play
  150. (ports and connectors) operating system feature that allows you to plug or unplug a device while the computer is running
    hot swap
  151. (ports) fits small, flat, plug-in-play, hot-swap USB connectors
    USB (universal serial bus) port
  152. (ports) fits hot-swap, plug-and-play, Firewire connectors
    firewire port
  153. (ports) fits PS/2 connectors [used for keyboards and mice]
    PS/2 port
  154. (ports) fits parallel large flat parallel connectors found on printers
    parallel port
  155. (wireless connections) uses red light to send and receive information
    infrared IR or IrDA (infrared data association)
  156. (wireless connections) transmits information as radio waves for a distance of 30 feet
  157. (wireless connections) transmits information as radio waves for a distance of up to several miles
    Wifi (wireless fidelity)
  158. circuit board that you insert into the expansion slot and connect to a peripheral device
    expansion card (board)
  159. long skinny socket on the motherboard for expansion card
    expansion slot
  160. pathways along which information moves between devices (outside the motherboard) and the CPU
    expansion bus
  161. expansion card for notebook
    PC card
  162. opening on sure or front of the notebook, into which you plug a PC card
    PC card slot
  163. businesses use many IT tools to manage and organize information for many reasons: (2)
    • online transaction processing (OLTP)
    • online analytical processing (OLAP)
  164. gathering information and processing information and updating existing information to reflect the processed information
    online transactions processing (OLTP)
  165. manipulation of information to support decision making
    online analytical processing (OLAP)
  166. - supports operational processing
    - sales orders, accounts receivable, etc
    - supported by operational databases & DBMSs
  167. - helps build business intelligence
    - supported by data warehouses and data-mining tools
  168. collection of information that you organize and access according to the logical structure of the information
  169. series of logically related two-dimensional tables or files for storing information
    relational database (most popular database model)
  170. relation = _____ = _____
    table = file
  171. What are database characteristics
    • collections of information
    • created with logical structures
    • include logical ties within the information
    • include built-in integrity constraints
  172. contains the logical structure for the information in a database
    data dictionary
  173. rules that help ensure the quality of information
    integrity constraints
  174. helps you specify the logical requirements for a database and access and use the information in a database
    database management system (DBMS)
  175. What are the 5 components of a DBMS
    • DBMS engine
    • data definition subsystem
    • data manipulation subsystem
    • application generation subsystem
    • data administration subsystem
  176. accepts logical requests from other DBMS subsystems, converts them into the physical equivalents, and access the database and data dictionary on a storage device
    DBMS engine
  177. (DBMS engine) how information is physically arranged, stored, and accessed on a storage device
    physical view
  178. (DBMS engine) how you need to arrange and access information to meet your needs
    logical view
  179. helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and structure of the files in a database
    data definition subsystem
  180. The data dictionary helps you define: (5)
    • field names
    • data types (numeric, etc)
    • form (do you need an area code)
    • default value
    • is an entry required, etc
  181. helps you add, change, and delete information in a database and query it to find valuable information
    data manipulation
  182. includes views, report generators, query-by-example tools, and structured query language
    data manipulation subsystem
  183. allows you to see the contents of a database file, make changes, and query it too