(software) enables you to solve specific problems or perform specific tasks
(software) handles tasks specific to technology management and coordinates the interaction of all technology devices
What are the two types of systems software?
operating system software
(systems software) controls application software and manages hardware devices
operating system software
(systems software) provides additional functionality to your operating system. Give examples
- anti virus
- screen saver
raw facts that describe a particular phenomenon such as the current temperature, the price of movie rental, or your age
data that has a particular meaning within a specific context
collective information about
- business partners
- competitive environment
Business intelligence (BI)
Why is BI (business intelligence) important?
it's info on steroids
can help you make important, strategic decisions
often combines multiple sets of information - customers, salespeople, and purchases in this case
broad term that can describe many things
(contextual explanation for business intelligence, actions to take to affect BI, intellectual assets such as patents/trademarks, organizational know-how for things such as best practices)
the process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy
rule of normalization
Normalization usually involves dividing _______ and defining ______.
large tables into smaller tables
relationships between the tables
What is the objective of normalization?
to isolate data so that additions, deletions, and modifications, of a field can be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the database using the defined relationships.
planning for, development, management, and use of IT tools to help people perform all tasks related to information processing and management
Name the 3 key resources in MIS:
3. information technology
computer-based tools that people use to work with information
information technology (IT)
What are examples of information tech?
hardware (physical device that makes up a computer [input device, output device, storage device, CPU, telecommunications device, connecting devices])
software (set of instructions that your hardware executes to carry out a specific task [application software, system software])
What is a CPU (hardware)?
hardware that interprets and executes instructions
____ temporarily stores information and software for the CPU.
Give some example of application software.
Give some examples of system software.
contains the logical structure for the information in a database
Before you can enter information into a database, you must define _________ for all the tables and their fields.
the data dictionary
How does information flow?
(Flow of information) describes state of the organization based on transactions
upward (↑current state of the organization)
(Flow of information) strategies, goals, and directives that originate at a higher level and are passed to lower levels
(Flow of information) between functional business units and work teams
(Flow of information) from and to customers, suppliers, distributors, and other partners
Describe the information granularity in the pyramid of flow of information
↑ coarse granularity
↓ fine granularity
_____ MUST drive ______.
What is the most important resource in Management Information Systems (MIS)?
principles and standards that guide our behavior toward other people
ethics (you want to be both ethical and legal)
Buyer power is high when they have ____ and low when they have _____.
providing a product or service in a way that customers value more than what the competition is able to do
significant impact on gaining market share by being the first to market with a competitive advantage
Supplier power is high when ____ and low when _______.
people have few choices
people have many choices
(opposite of buyer power)
The threat of substitute products and services is high when _______ and low when _____.
there are many alternatives for buyers
there are few alternatives for buyers
a cost that makes buyers reluctant to switch to another product/service
(these can reduce the threat of substitute products and services)
The threat of new entrants is high when ______ and low when _______.
it is easy to enter the market
entry barriers are significant
product or service feature that customers have come to expect and that must be offered by an entering organization.
Rivalry among existing competitors is high when ____ and low when _______.
competition is fierce
competition is more complacent
_____ has intensified competition in all sectors of business.
offering the same or better quality product or service at a price that is less than what any of the competition is able to do
overall cost leadership
offering a product or service is perceived as being "unique" in the marketplace
pin-point on offering products or services to a particular segment or buyer group, withing a segment of a product line, or to a specific geographic market
the allocation in terms of percentages of IT dollars on various types of business strategies
run-grow-transform framework (RGT)
systematic approach to assessing and improving the value of business processes
chain or series of business processes, each of which adds value to your organization's products or services.
standardized set of activities that accomplishes a specific task
There are two types of Business Processes:
primary and support
takes in raw materials and makes, delivers, markets/sells, and services your products and services
primary value process
supports the primary value processes
support value process
any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization
set of instructions that hardware executes to carry out a specific task for you
hardware that interprets and executes software and coordinates all hardware
temporary holding area for information and software
(computers) meets needs of several people simultaneously in a small or medium-sized business
minicomputer (mid-range computer)
(computers) meets needs of hundreds of people in a large business
(computers) fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer
(software) helps you perform personal tasks. Ex: Microsoft Programs (word, pp, excel)
personal productivity software
(software) several applications bundled together [usually productivity software]
(personal productivity software) helps you create letters, memos, and other basic documents
(personal productivity software) helps you work with numbers, perform calculations and create graphs
(personal productivity software) helps you create and edit information that will appear in slides
(personal productivity software) extends word processing by including design and formatting techniques to enhance the appearance of the document
(personal productivity software) helps you create and maintain to-do lists, appointments, calendars
personal information management (PIM)
(personal productivity software) helps you maintain your checkbook and handle other personal finance tasks
(personal productivity software) helps you design and develop Web sites
(person productivity software) helps you create and edit photos and art
(personal productivity software) helps you communicate with others
(personal productivity software) helps you specify the logical organization for a database; access and use the information within a database
database management system (DBMS)
(utility software) detects and removes or quarantines computer viruses
(utility software) helps save information if your system crashes
(utility software) removes software from your hard disk
(utility software) organizes information on your hard disk
disk optimization software
(utility software) filters unwanted e-mail
What are the representations of information?
binary digit (bit)
smallest unit of information your computer can process
binary digit (bit)
eight bits or the number of bits it takes to represent one natural character
coding system that personal computers use
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
most frequently used input devices for notebooks and desktops to enter information and commands
most frequently used input devices for PDAs and tablet PCs to enter information and commands
used to convert information that exists in visible form into electronic form
(scanners) detects the presence or absence of a mark
optical mark reader
(scanners) reads characters that appear on paper or sales tag [used in POS systems]
optical character reader
(scanner) scans a human physical attribute, like a fingerprint or iris, for security purposes
captures still image or video as a series of 1s and 0s
digital camera (still, video, webcam)
(monitors) monitors that look like traditional TV sets
(monitors) thin, lightweight monitors that take up much less space than CRTs
(flat-panel monitors) sends electrically through crystallized liquid between layers of glass or plastic
Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor
(flat-panel monitors) sends electrically through gas trapped between layers of glass or plastic
Gas plasma display
(monitor considerations) the size of the image on a monitor
viewable image size (VIS)
(monitor considerations) the number of pixels it has
resolution of a screen
(monitor considerations) the dots that make up the image
pixels (picture elements)
(monitor considerations) the distance between the centers of two like-colored pixels
(printers) makes images by forcing ink through nozzles
(printers) forms images using the same electrostatic process that photocopiers use
(printers) scan, copy, and fax, as well as print
(printers) forms output by moving pen across paper
What are the 3 capacities of storage devices
megabyte (MB or M or Meg)
gigabyte (GB or Gig)
_____ about 1 million bytes
_____ about 1 billion bytes
_____ about 1 trillion bytes
magnetic storage with one or more thin metal platters sealed inside the drive
plastic discs on which information is stored, deleted, and changed using laser technology
optical storage media (CDs & DVDs)
(CDs) information cannot be changed
CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory)
(CDs) write one time only
CD-R (compact disc - recordable)
(CDs) save, change, and delete files repeatedly
CD-RW (compact disc - rewritable)
very small storage device that plugs into USB port
flash memory device
high capacity storage laminated inside a small piece of plastic
flash memory card
____ and ___ work together to form the brain of your computer
CPU speed is measured in ____
what is the CPU machine cycle?
retrieve, decode, and execute instruction, then return result to RAM if necessary
(CPU components) directs what happens in the CPU and the rest of your computer
(CPU components) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logic operations
arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
(CPU component) CPU memory where instructions wait until they're needed
(CPU component) beats to keep instructions and information moving in synchronized fashion
electrical pathways that move information between mother board components, especially between CPU and RAM
(CPU machine cycle) the control unit sends to RAM for the instructions and information it needs
(CPU machine cycle) CPU gets the instruction out of cache and examine sit to see what to do
(CPU machine cycle) does what the instruction says to do
(CPU machine cycle) sends the result of processing to be stored in RAM if necessary
place your system unit, monitor, or keyboard through which information and instructions flow to and from computer
something like a cable; can also be wireless
(ports and connectors) operating system feature that finds and installs the driver for the device
plug and play
(ports and connectors) operating system feature that allows you to plug or unplug a device while the computer is running
(ports) fits small, flat, plug-in-play, hot-swap USB connectors