Skeletal and Muscular Systems

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Skeletal and Muscular Systems
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2014-10-02 21:11:48
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Anatomy Physiology
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Quiz of 10/03
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  1. What is the skeletal system composed of?
    bones and joints
  2. articulated
    jointed
  3. ligaments
    • fibrous cords that bind bones together at joints 
    • connect bone to bone
    • many types of cartilage and a lot of connective tissue (to stabilize bones)
  4. Functions of the skeletal system
    • provides support
    • protection of viscera 
    • movement
    • storage of minerals
    • hematopoiesis
    • fat storage
  5. provides support
    • framework
    • ex: vertebrae supporting the head
  6. protection of viscera (Ex)
    skull protecting the head
  7. movement
    • the skeletal system moves at joints
    • muscles pull on bones
    • tendons attach bone to muscle
  8. tendons
    • a type of fibrous cord
    • attach bone to muscle
  9. Storage of minerals
    such as calcium and phosphorus in intercellular matrix
  10. growth factors
    • influence growth
    • located in the matrix
  11. Hematopoiesis
    • or hemopoiesis
    • the synthesis of blood cells
    • takes place in the red bone marrow (active bone marrow)
  12. fat storage
    in yellow bone marrow (inactive but can become active if necessary)
  13. What are the types of bones and examples
    • long bones- long shape (humerus, femur)
    • short bones- small chunky bones (wrist, ankle)
    • flat bones- (skull, sternum, ribs)
    • irregular bones-everything else (vertebrae, hip bones)
  14. sesamoid bones
    • special type of short bone
    • small bones in tendons, such as in your knee
  15. Bone tissue is also called
    osseous tissue
  16. Types of bone tissue
    • compact- dense; on outer layer of bones
    • spongy- also called cancellous bone; not as dense and tissue is in a mesh with spaces (the spaces contain bone marrow)
  17. trebeculae
    • pieces of bone tissue that form the mesh in spongy bone
    • found internal to the compact bone
  18. Structures included in the long bone
    • epiphyseal plate
    • diaphysis
    • marrow cavity
    • epiphysis
  19. diaphysis
    • main shaft
    • has thick compact bone but is a hollow cylinder with a marrow cavity inside
    • gives strength and support without a lot of weight because its hollow
  20. epiphysis (es- plural)
    • rounded end
    • 2 of them, proximal and distal
    • thin layer of compact bone on outside, inside has spongy bone
    • lighter weight spongy bone gives support while being light and acts as a place where joints are and can take stress
    • roundness gives stability and allows for muscle attachment
  21. marrow cavity
    • Medullary cavity
    • in adults, there is yellow bone marrow here
  22. epiphyseal plate
    • also called growth plate
    • area of cartilage in a bone that is still growing
    • once bone is fully hardened and growth has stopped, it becomes the epiphyseal line
  23. articular cartilage
    • type of hyaline cartilage
    • occurs at joints
    • each one is covered by a layer of articular cartilage (bc this is always at joints)
    • functions to cushion the joint
  24. long bone membranes
    • periosteum
    • endosteum
  25. periosteum
    • perimeter
    • on outside surface of bone, except right at the joint, has 2 layers
  26. 2 layers of the periosteum
    • fibrous layer: outer layer; dense irregular connective tissue
    • osteogenic layer: inner layer; contains osteoblasts
  27. osteoblasts
    • bone forming cells
    • important for bone synthesis and make key things that make bones hard and strong
  28. periosteum functions
    • bone growth (especially in diameter)
    • blood in membrane is important for nutrition of the bone
    • attaching ligaments and tendons because the collagen fibers in the fibrous layer will make connections to the fibrous chords by extending
  29. endosteum
    • inside membrane
    • lines marrow cavity
  30. endosteum function
    bone growth (has osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
  31. osteoclasts
    • bone destroying cells
    • help hollow out the bone as it grows in diameter
  32. types of bone cells
    • osteoblasts
    • osteoclasts
    • osteogenic cells
    • osteocytes
  33. osteogenic cells
    • bone stem cells
    • immature cell and other bone cells (except osteoclasts) develop from it
  34. Osteocytes
    regular mature bone cells
  35. Structures of other bones (not long bone)
    • no marrow cavity
    • outer layer compact bone, inner is spongy bone
    • still a periosteum on outside and endostium on inside but no marry cavity, it is just spongy bone
    • bone marrow is in spongy bone
  36. Red bone marrow
    • has blood
    • active in hematopoesis
    • when young, many bones have this type (in marrow cavity, epiphyses, and other spongy bone)
    • when you are older it becomes yellow
  37. Where is red bone marrow located in adults
    • spongy bone of flat bone (skull, sternum), red marrow here is called diploe
    • some irregular bone (vertebrae and hips)
    • only proximal epiphysis of humerus and femur in long bones
  38. Microscopic structure of long bone
    • cells have layers that are spaces called lacunae with the cells inside these lacunae
    • lots of intercellular matrix
  39. Where are osteocytes found
    in lacunae
  40. percentage microscopic makeup of bone
    • 35% organic-strong; contains collagen fibers (which are proteins)
    • --->mucopolysaccharides (carbs and protiens), these along with collagen fibers are made by osteoblasts and released into intercellular matrix
    • 65% inorganic- series of mostly calcium crystals called hydroxyappetite
  41. 2 types of mucopolysaccharides
    • proteoglycans
    • glucoproteins
  42. What are the calcium crystals and other minerals in the inorganic layer
    • calcium crystals: calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydroxide
    • other minerals: magnesium, iron and sodium
  43. What is compact bone made of
    • densely packed haversion systems (or osteons), which are cylindrical units of the intercellular matrix with lacunae
    • the central canal in them contains blood
  44. What kind of tissue is bone
    • a vascular tissue
    • it has a rich blood supply
  45. what is in the center of each osteon
    • a central canal with blood vessels and nerves
    • off of the central canal are perferating canals with blood (which are perpendicular to reach all layers)
    • cells get blood access with nutrients and oxygen from small channels from lacunae
  46. What is in spongy bone
    • not the same dense appearance as compact bone
    • trabeculae (irregular lamellae, not tight packed)
    • there will be osteocytes that get access to blood  contents by blood vessels
    • no central canal, but there are blood vessles associated with the endosteum
    • less complicated than compact bone
  47. Cartilage
    • intercellular matrix is a firm gel
    • relatively avascular with very little blood supply (there is diffusion of nutrients and oxygen by nearby blood)
  48. Chondrocytes
    cells in spaces of lacunae
  49. What are the 2 types of cartilage associated with the skeletal system
    • hyaline cartilage: articular and costal (between ribs and sternum)
    • fibrous cartilage: occurs at discs between vertebrae at some joints there are miniscus discs, such as in the knee
  50. miniscous discs
    pads of cartilage that relieve pressure
  51. Ossification
    • bone formation or osteogenesis
    • bones become ossified, 2 stages
  52. 2 stages of ossification
    • 1. The osteoblasts make and release to the matrix the organic compounds (collagen fibers and mucopolysaccharides) 
    • 2. Calcification- the deposit of the inorganic slats into the matrix
  53. types of ossification (in embryo)
    • 1. intramembranous ossification (the bone develops from a fibrous membrane)
    • ex: bones of the skull- soft spots or fontanels, that have not ossified
    • 2. endochondrial ossification (bone develops from cartilage)
  54. difference between bone in children in adults (development)
    • as children grow they make more soft tissue and then becomes ossified
    • in an adult there is remodeling of the bone (repair and balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
  55. Bone growth of long bone
    • longitudinal growth
    • appositional growth
  56. longitudinal growth
    • bone growth in length
    • starts out in the center of the bone and you have to make more cartilage and then start ossifying it
  57. primary ossification center
    where longitudinal bone growth starts first;its in the middle of the diaphysis
  58. secondary ossification center
    • in longitudinal bone growth
    • located in the end epiphyses
  59. appositional growth
    • growth in diameter
    • as the bone gets longer it also gets wider but you have to worry about the marrow cavity
    • osteoblasts of periosteum will build bone tissue
    • osteoclasts of the endosteum will break down some bone to hollow out the marrow cavity
  60. Steps of bone repair if you get a fracture or break a bone
    • 1. bleeding occurs and youll form a hematoma (blood clot)
    • 2. cartilage will form in a fibrocartilagenous callus
    • ---> at this step phagocytic cells engulf and destroy or clean up the cell debri
    • ---> cartilage forms to connect broken ends
    • 3. Formation of a bony callus- made of spongy bone
    • 4. bone remodeling- if theres excess tissue (especially outside the diaphysis) int he area, it will be broken down and new compact bone is made on the outside to keep it strong
  61. Changes in the bone/skeleton throughout life- child
    • children are forming bone
    • ---> more formation than destruction occurring causing growth
    • --->skeleton- fontonels become ossified as child grows; head starts as a larger portion of the body for brain to grow, and the rest of the skeleton grows in
    • curvature of vertebral column changes to support head
  62. Changes in the bone/skeleton throughout life- young adult
    • no longer growing
    • rate of bone formation=rate of destruction so you stay the same height
  63. Changes in the bone/skeleton throughout life- older adult
    • rate of destruction is often greater than rate of formation- resulting in loss of bone tissue
    • as you get older there is an increased risk of osteoporosis
  64. bone atrophy
    bone shrinking
  65. osteoperosis
    • pourous bone that is less strong and breaks more easily
    • women more at risk than men
  66. why are women more at risk for osteoperosis than men
    • bc estrogen stimulates osteoblast activity and calcium deposit and estrogen lowers after menopause
    • testosterone can do the same bc some testosterone can be converted to estrogen, and men dont have menopaus so decrease in testosterone is much more gradual and later
  67. What promotes bone strength
    • diet with enough calcium and vitamin d (needed to absorb Ca from food)
    • exercise
  68. how can women at menopause maintain bone strength
    • can receive hormone replacement therapy:(estrogen); has significant risks- heart attack, stroke, breast cancer
    • variety of medications: specifically target bone strength; most work by decreasing # and activity of osteoclasts; no side effects like HRT
  69. Homeostasis of calcium level in the blood
    • set point is a narrow range
    • calcium is vital for neuromuscular activity such as heart function or blood clotting
  70. what happens if theres not enough calcium in your diet
    • reabsorption: you will break down bone tissue to release the calcium stored there into the blood
    • ---> this is stimulated by the parathyroid hormone (also stimulates Ca absorption from food and decreases Ca excretion) from parathyroid gland
  71. Nutritional Deficiency- in a child
    • calcium deficiency (also vitamin D and phosphorus) called ricket in a child
    • bones will be too soft
    • severely bowed legs
    • malformation of bones
    • poor growth- no hormonal growth, no calcification of tissue
  72. Nutritional Deficiency- in adult
    • adult rickets is called osteomalacia- a dietary cause of osteoporosis
    • bones will be softened and weakened
  73. Articulations
    joints
  74. Types of joints
    • Fibrous- little/no movement; fibrous connective tissue, no joint cavity
    • Cartilaginous- little/no movement; cartilage between bones, no joint cavity
    • Synovial (diarthrotic)- free movement; synovial joint cavity between bones with synovial fluid
  75. Fibrous Joints
    • sutures (synostoses): immovable joints of skull
    • syndesmoses: joints held together by ligament (tibia/fibula,radius/ulna), slight movement
    • gomphoses: teeth bound to bone with ligaments, no movement
  76. cartilaginous joints
    • symphyses: fibrocartilage between bones- slight movement, mandibular symphisis
    • synchondroses: hyaline cartilage between surfaces, no movement; ex- costal cartilage between ribs
  77. Synovial Joints
    • plane: flat surfaces, nonaxial gliding movement-between carpals
    • hinge: spool in concave surface, unaxial, flex/extend- elbow
    • pivot: cone in depression, unaxial rotation- between atlas/axis
    • condyloid (ellipsoidal): oval in elliptical cavity, biaxal-wrist
    • saddle: saddle in socket, more movement than condyloid- twiddling thumbs
    • ball and socket: ball head and concave socket, multi axial, largest range of movement- shoulder
  78. Types of movement at synnovial (diathrotic) joints
    • unaxial: 1 plane/dimension
    • biaxial:2
    • multiaxial:3
    • nonaxial (translational): gliding movements- between carpals
  79. main angular movements
    • flexion- bending, decreasing angle
    • abduction- move away from median plane
    • rotation- pivot, turning bone on axis
    • elevation- raising
    • protraction- move part forward
    • pronation- turn forearm or body so that the back of the hand or abdomen is down
    • supination- same as pronation, but up
    • inversion- turn ankle so sole of foodt is in
    • eversion- sole of foot out
    • dorsiflexion- move foot/toe up
    • plantar flexion-move foot/toe down
    • opposition- move thumb to touch other fingers
  80. synarthroses
    • synarthrotic joints
    • no movement
  81. Amphiarthroses
    • slight movement
    • direct connection with fibers
  82. diarthroses
    free, must have joint cavity between bones
  83. Joint injuries and disorders (9)
    • sprain
    • strain
    • dislocation
    • cartilage tear
    • arthritis
    • bursitis
    • tendonitis
    • sinusitis
    • carpel tunnel syndrome
  84. Sprain
    • twisting a joint (not broken), you may stretch or tear a ligament
    • there may be swelling (edema) blood vessel damage inside causing fluid to collect int he area
  85. Strain
    • a stretched or partly torn muscle
    • can be minor if just strained or more severe if you slightly tear the muscle
    • can happen from sudden overpowering movement or overuse
  86. dislocation
    • at a joint, bones are forced out of alignment
    • also called luxation
    • if the joint is dislocated, you must deduce the angle and return it to its position
  87. cartilage tear
    • can happen from compression and stress to the area
    • ex: meniscous disc in knee
  88. Arthroscopic Surgery
    • joint repair
    • ex: cartilage, ligaments, etc
    • an arthroscope is an instrument that uses light to view and repair the area without making a large incision
  89. Arthritis
    • inflammation of a joint
    • irritation that happens- causing edema, tenderness, and less movement
    • starts with synovial membrane and may end up affecting cartilage and bone
  90. Types of arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Gout (gouty) Arthritis
  91. Osteoarthritis
    • degenerative joint disease
    • most common type
    • increases in incidence with aging
    • can be mild or severe
  92. Rhumatoid Arthritis
    • an autoimmune disease, the immune system find the joint area foreign and attacks it
    • much more severe than regular arthritis and will often cause cartilage and bone deformities 
    • collagen in the tissue is affected
    • more common in women
    • develops age 30-50
  93. Gout (gouty) arthritis
    • a specific type that is related to uric acid
    • accumulated in the joint area causing irritation
    • often big toe, foot, leg
    • more common in men because estrogen stimulates uric acid excretion
  94. bursitis
    • the irritation/inflammation of the bursa
    • knee and shoulder most common
    • swelling, pain, reduced movement
  95. Bursa
    fluid filled sac, synovial membrane, pressure cushions joints
  96. Tendonitis
    inflammation of the tendon
  97. Sinusitis
    • an inflammation and often infection of the sinuses in the head
    • swelling can block normal mucous passageways associated with the nose and sinuses; and then bacteria may grow (secondary infection) and can be treated with antibiotics
  98. sinus
    • a general term meaning a space
    • an air filled chamber in the skull
    • in bones: maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
    • connected to nasal cavity
    • lightens the head and moistens the air
  99. Carpel tunnel syndrome
    • the organization of the carpel bones create a space or tunnel
    • an inflammation of tendons in the wrist due to repeated physical stress
    • a type of repetitive motion injury
    • tendons get swollen and put pressure on a nerve- can cause numbness and finger pain
    • treatment depends on severity-splint can work, sometimes surgery needed
  100. What are the organs of the muscular system
    the skeletal muscles
  101. myology
    the study of muscles
  102. orthopedics
    deals with disorders of both the skeletal and muscular systems
  103. Skeletal muscle tissue
    • predominant tissue type
    • voluntary
  104. special characteristics that make skeletal muscle predominant muscle type
    • contractility: ability to contract/move
    • good responsiveness: they will not contract unless receiving a nervous stimuli
    • extensibility: can be stretched, but is elastic and can return to resting length
  105. Functions of the muscular system
    • Movement of the body and its parts: due to contraction
    • Stabilizing joints: muscles attached to tendons
    • Maintaining posture: body position is held, needed to counteract gravity
    • Helps to maintain body temp by producing heat: heat is produced with ATP after breakdown of glucose, which is needed to contract muscles; when shivering, you have involuntary contraction of muscles to produce more heat
  106. Where are cardiac and smooth muscle
    • in the internal organs
    • they regulate viscera and are separately controlled by the nervous system
  107. What is skeletal muscle made of
    • skeletal muscle tissue
    • these muscle cells are also called muscle fibers because the cells are very long
    • connective tissue, nervous tissue, blood vessels
  108. Connective tissue elements associated with the muscle
    • there are sheets or coverings
    • tendons
    • aponeurosis
    • superficial fascia
    • deep fascia
  109. shees or coverings- from outer to inner
    epimysium- the covering over the whole entire muscle organperimysium- the sheet around a bundle of muscle fivers or fascicle; covers a group of cellsendomysium-- around the individual muscle cells
  110. tendons
    • dense cords connecting the muscle to bone
    • have connections at each end- so one end of the muscle will be moving and the other is fixed
  111. insertion bone
    moves- at joint
  112. origin bone
    does not move
  113. Aponeurosis
    • a broad, flat sheet of connective tissue
    • attaches muscle to nearby structures
    • ex: connecting different abdominal muscles
  114. superficial fascia
    loose connective tissue right under the skin
  115. deep fascia
    • dense regular connective tissue under the superficial
    • stronger
  116. Microscopic anatomy of the muscle
    • muscle cells are very long
    • they have hundreds of nuclei and mitochondria
  117. Special structures of muscle cells
    • sarcolemma
    • sarcoplasm
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • myofibrils
    • striations
  118. sarcolemma
    the muscle cell membrane
  119. sarcoplasm
    muscle cell cytoplasm
  120. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum- very important for contraction
  121. myofibrils
    • long organelles that almost fill the cytoplasm of the cell
    • the contractile elements of muscles
    • in order for the cell to shorten when contracting, each myofibril contracts
  122. 2 types of filaments that make up myofibrils
    • thick filament: contain myosin
    • thin filament: mainly contains actin, but also troponin and topomyosin
  123. myosin
    a protein that has heads that stick out towards the thin filaments
  124. actin
    main protien in thin filament
  125. what is the function of troponin and tropomyosin
    prevent contraction unless the muscle is stimulated
  126. Striations
    • stripes
    • longitudinally- myofibrils
    • line up alternating thick and thin filaments, creating dark (thick) and light (thin) bands
  127. Sarcomere
    • a unit of measurement in the myofibril
    • goes from the middle of one thin filament to the middle of the next thin filament
    • when the cell is relaxed the sarcomere is normal length but it is shortened during contraction
  128. Neurons
    send impulses to muscle cells
  129. main neurons in the muscular system
    somatic motor neurons- body movement neurons
  130. somatic nervous system
    • controls skeletal muscles
    • voluntary, unlike autonomic which controls organ muscles
  131. parts of a neuron
    dendrites--> cell body-->axon--->axon terminals
  132. What happens when a nervous impulse reaches the axon terminal
    acetylcholine, a chemical neurotransmitter is released from the terminal to stimulate the muscle cell membrane (sarcolema)
  133. synapse
    • where a neuron communicates with another cell
    • the specific synapse between a somatic motor neuron and a muscle cell is called a neuromuscular junction
    • synapse is just space while neuromuscular junction includes end of axon terminal and begining of muscle cell
  134. What is needed for acetylcholine to be released from the axon terminal
    calcium must first be taken up into the terminal from the extracellular fluid
  135. Where in the terminal is acetylcholine stored?
    synaptic vessicles- sacs

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