Airway and Breathing

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Author:
readyreg29
ID:
284739
Filename:
Airway and Breathing
Updated:
2014-10-04 09:57:49
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Airway Breathing
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Airway and Breathing
Description:
Airway and Breathing
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  1. Primary objective of airway maintenance
    • Elimination of CO2
    • Early detection of problems
    • Rapid/effective interventions
    • Reassessment
  2. Common neglected prehospital skill related to airway
    • Basic airway techniques
    • Seals or positioning
    • Rushing to use advanced interventions
    • Failure to reassess
  3. Function of the upper airway
    • Warm
    • Filter 
    • Humidify
  4. Anatomy of the Upper airway
    • Pharynx (throat)
    • Nasapharynx
    • Oropharynx
  5. Structures of the Oropharynx
    • Epiglottis
    • Larynx (voice box)
    • Thyroid cartilage
  6. Anatomy of the Lower airway
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveoli
    • Lungs
  7. Functions of the Lower airway
    Exchange of O2 and CO2
  8. Pulmonary circulation
    Carries blood from the heart to lungs back to heart
  9. Respiration
    Exchange of O2 & CO2
  10. Factors that can decrease O2 in blood
    • Narcotic overdose
    • Paralysis (c-spine injury)
    • Flail chest
    • Atelectasis (lung collapse
    • Anemia
  11. Hypoxia
    • Insufficient O2
    • (celluar/tissue)
  12. Hypoxemia
    Low oxygen in blood
  13. Modified forms of respirations
    • Coughning
    • Sneezing
    • Sigh
    • Hiccough
  14. A drop of 10 mm Hg or more in systolic BP on inspiration
    (asthma, COPD, pericardial tamponade)
    Pulsus paradoxus
  15. Causes of upper airway obstructions
    • Foreign objects
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Epiglottitus
  16. Respiratory distress
    Difficulty breathing
  17. Airway obstruction maneuvers
    • Manual maneuvers (HT,JT)
    • Suction
    • Nasopharyngeal airway
    • Oropharyngeal airway
    • Intubations
  18. Used primarily for tracheobronchial suctioning to clear secretions through an ET tube or
    • NasopharynxWhistle-tip
    • (narrow flexible tube)
  19. Results from air trapped in stomach
    Stomach pushes against diaphragm
    Interferes w/ lung expansion
    Abdomen distended
    Resistance to BVM ventilation
    Gastric distension
  20. Disadvantages of Nasopharyngeal airway
    • Enter esophagus
    • Vomiting
    • Bleeding
    • Aspiration
    • Difficult to suction
  21. Complications of Oropharyngeal airway
    • Tongue obstruction
    • Aspiration
    • Vomiting
  22. Complications of a Tracheostomy tubes
    • Obstruction
    • Air leak
    • Bleeding
    • Dislodgment
    • Infection
  23. A surgical procedure to create an opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe)
    Tracheostomy
  24. Endotracheal intubation indications
    • Unable to ventilate unconscious patient 
    • Pt. cannot protect there own airway
    • Prolonged artificial ventilation
  25. An exam of the back of your throat used to remove FBAO
    Laryngoscopy
  26. Complications of endotracheal intubation
    • Esophageal placement
    • Right mainstem placement
  27. Digital or Blind intubation (dual lumen)
    Indications
    • Inability to visualize
    • Excessive blood / secretions
  28. A temporary suspension of breathing
    Apnea
  29. RSI indications
    • Responsive unable to cooperate or
    • Combative
  30. 6 Steps of RSI
    • Preparation
    • Pre-oxygenation
    • Premedication
    • Paralysis (sedation)
    • Placement of tube
    • Postintubation management
  31. Passage of the ET tube through the nasopharynx into the trachea
    Nasotracheal intubation
  32. Nasotracheal intubation 
    indications
    Patients who are breathing spontaneously but require a definitive airway
  33. Cricothyrotomy indications
    • Severe FBO
    • Swelling (anaphylaxis, Burns)
    • Massive maxillofacial trauma
    • Inability to open mouth
  34. Cricothyrotomy potential complications
    • Prolonged execution time
    • Hemorrhage
    • Aspiration
    • Misplacement
    • Perforation of esophagus
    • Subcutaneous emphysema
    • Injury to vocal cords, carotid, jugular vessels
  35. Cricothyrotomy contraindications
    • Identification of anatomic landmarks
    • Crushing injuries
    • Abnormalities 
    • Age younger than 8
  36. Translaryngeal cannula ventilation
    Needle Cricothyrotomy
  37. Procedure for extubation
    • Suction above cuff 
    • Deflate cuff
    • Withdrawal on cough or expiration
    • Assess respiratory status
    • Provide O2 (assist if needed)
  38. If the metabolic rate increases (energy) more _____ is produced
    CO2
  39. Implications of partial airway obstructions
    (good & poor air exchange)
    • CO2 (hyperventilating)
    • SPO2 reading
    • Cap refill
    • Mucus membranes
    • Chest rise / fall
    • Lung sounds
  40. Causes of respiratory distress
    • COPD
    • Asthma
    • Foreign body
    • Allergic reaction
    • Toxic
    • Trauma
  41. Symptoms of of Pulmonary embolism
    Acute shortness of breath
  42. Signs and symptoms of Cheyne strokes
    • Deep sleepers
    • Intoxicated
    • Snoring
  43. Assisting breathing by increasing the air pressure in the lungs; so an increased amount of air remains in the lungs following expiration
    Positive end-expiratory pressure

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