Anatomy & Physiology 1 - part 2

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Anatomy & Physiology 1 - part 2
2014-11-03 18:47:59
anatomy physiology

post-mid term
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  1. the cell type that secretes the osteoid in bone tissue?
  2. the site where two or more bones meet
  3. define a synarthrosis joint? What classification is this?
    • immovable joint
    • functional
  4. define an amphiarthroses joint?
    slightly moveable joint
  5. define an diarthrosis joint?
    freely moveable joint
  6. three structural classifications of joints
    • fibrous joints
    • cartilaginous joints
    • synovial joints
  7. 3 types of fibrous joints.
    • Sutures
    • Syndemoses
    • Gomphoses
  8. sutures are created with this type of tissue
    dense fibrous connective tissue
  9. synedemoses (pl) joints are held together by?
  10. A peg in socket fibrous joint
    a gomphosis joint
  11. the tooth is rooted as a ________ joint via the _______ ligament
    • synarthrotic 
    • peridontal
  12. two types of cartilaginous joints
    • synchondroses 
    • symphyses
  13. synchondroses and symphyses joints are _______ moveable
  14. define a synchondrosis joint
    bones united by hyaline cartilage
  15. all synchondrosis joints are ___________ joints
  16. define a "symphysis joint"
    • bones united by fibrocartilage 
    • they are  "amphiarthrotic joint"
  17. usually only _____ neuromuscular junction (NMJ) per muscle fiber 
  18. the plasma membrane of a muscle is known as?
  19. Te sarcoplasmic reticulum stores _____ in its lumen 
  20. When a nerve impulse reaches a neuromuscular junction.... it releases?
  21. numerous folds in the sarcoplasm (muscle fibers) are called?
    junctional folds 
  22. define the "end plate potential"
    a slight depolarization
  23. the enzyme which digests acetylcholine?
  24. two functional divisions of the PNS
    • sensory (afferent) division
    • motor (efferent) division
  25. two divisions of the efferent nervous system
    • somatic nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system
  26. this nerve system conducts from CNS to the skeletal muscles
    somatic nervous system
  27. "voluntary nervous system"
    somatic nervous system
  28. 2 subdivisions of the ANS
    • sympathetic division
    • parasympathetic division
  29. "involuntary nervous system"
    Autonomic Nervous System
  30. 2 steps of repolarization
    • Na+ gates close
    • volate gated K+channels open
  31. steps of the AP
    • resting state
    • depolarization
    • repolarization
    • hyperpolarization
  32. _____________ increases the probability of the occurrence of an action potential, while _____________ decreases the probability of the occurrence of an action potential
    • depolarization
    • hyperpolarization
  33. two types of summation in neuron
    • temporal summation (depends on time)
    • spatial summation (depends on simultaneous EPSP's at different locations)
  34. neurotransmitters based on class
    • acetylcholine (ACh)
    • biogenic amines (catecholamines)
    • Peptides (neuropeptides)
    • Pruines (ATP)
    • Gases and lipids (Nitric Oxide)
  35. 2 mechanisms for neurotransmission
    • direct
    • indirect (g-protein linked)
  36. nerves are found in the _________ while tract are found in the _______
    • PNS
    • CNS
  37. depolarization of the neurone refers to _______
    a reduction in membrane potential
  38. there are 4 ventricles in the brain lined by _______ cells
  39. both hemispheres of the brain consists of an outer layer called the _____ ______
    cerebral cortex
  40. 5 lobes of each cerebral hemisphere
    • frontal lobe
    • parietal lobe
    • temporal lobe
    • occipital lobe
    • insula
  41. the initiates nerve impulses that cause contraction of skeletal muscles
    primary motor cortex
  42. this area of the brain controls the muscles of speech
    broca's area
  43. the area of the brain responsible for taste
    gustatory cortex
  44. this area of the brain plays a role in interpreting and producing language
    Wernickes area
  45. Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?
    crossed-extensor reflex
  46. The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a __________.
    stretch reflex
  47. __________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.
  48. Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.
    mixed nerves
  49. The phrenic nerve serves the __________.
  50. Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?
    -the number of dendritic endings present
    -the type of stimulus they detect
    -structural complexity
    the number of dendritic endings present
  51. __________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
  52. Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?
  53. plays a key role in the arousal of the brain
    reticular formation
  54. this system sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it conscious and alert
    reticular activating system
  55. severe injuries to the ____________
    results in permanent unconsciousness
    reticular activating system
  56. name the 3 meninges
    • dura mater (superficial)
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  57. the subarachnoid space contains ___________
    cerebrospinal fluid
  58. the choroid plexus is each ventricle produces __________
  59. helps maintain a stable environment for the brain
    blood brain barrier
  60. BBB is formed by ____ junctions located between neighbouring ________ cells of brain capillaries
    • tight 
    • endothelial
  61. the vomiting centre of the brain is located in this region on the brain
    medulla oblongata
  62. the major reflex center
    the spinal cord
  63. in the spinal cord, ____matter surrounds ____ grey matter. In the brain, _____ matter surrounds _____ matter.
    • white
    • grey
    • grey
    • white (it is opposite)
  64. ganglion
    a collection of nerve cells in the PNS
  65. a collection of nerve cells in the CNS
  66. In the spinal cord, the ventral root contains the axons of _____ neurons, while the dorsal root contains axons of the _______ nuerons
    • motor
    • sensory
  67. every spinal nerve has a mixture of ______ and _______ nerves.
    • motor
    • sensory
  68. white matter is divided into three ___ _____ on each side
    white columns
  69. names the 3 columns of white matter in the spinal cord
    • dorsal 
    • ventral
    • lateral
  70. In white mater, nerve fibbers are bundled to form ______
    tracts (a bunds of axons located in the CNS, in the PNS it is called a nerve)
  71. in white mater, ascending tracts transmit _____ information to higher centers
  72. first-order neuron
    conducts impulses from receptors into the spinal cord
  73. second-order neuron
    axon extends to the thalamus or cerebellum
  74. third-order neuron
    • cell body is located in the thalamus
    • axon extends to the somatosensory cortex
  75. In the spinal cord, the the descending pathway there are tracts that include a series of what two neurons
    • upper motor neurons
    • lower motor neurons
  76. decussation of pyramids occurs in the ______?
    medulla oblongata
  77. structures that are specialized to respond to changes in the environment
    sensory receptors
  78. 5 types by function of stimulus receptors
    • mechanoreceptors
    • thermoreceptors
    • photoreceptors
    • chemoreceptors
    • nociceptors (pain receptors)
  79. name 3 classifications of receptors by location
    • exteroceptors
    • interoceptors
    • proprioceptors