Ecology Flashcards Chapter 3.
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Biodiversity is all the different types of life forms found within a specific place. Biodiversity can even include the variety of ecosystems within or beyond that region.
Example; The biodiversity on earth is 2 million. Which means there's 2 million different species on earth.
When harming a species, that is endangered, threatened or of special concern becomes illegal.
Example; The Eastern Ribbonsnake is an example of protect in Ontario.
A biodiversity hotspot is a place where there are lots of species in a small area
Example; Carolinion Canada is a biodiversity hotspot.
The populations of different species interacting with each other in a specific ecosystem, or area.
Example; Fish, corals and sponges are the community of a coral reef.
A dominant species is a species that is large in population, and has the biggest biomass of the community.
Example; Humans are the dominant species of Kitchener.
A species that affects the population numbers and health of an ecosystem greatly. The keystone species does not have to be the dominant species. When thinking of keystone species, one can think of key, they are the key to health and population.
Example; Sea otters are the keystone species of kelp forests.
When endangered species are intentionally bred to increase population size.
Example; The Toronto Zoo is heavily involved in the captive breeding of the black footed ferret.
When a species causes really dramatic changes to a landscape, so much so that it creates a new ecosystem.
Example; Beavers are ecosystem engineers, because they reconstruct the ecosystem when they build their dams.
The changes that happen to an ecosystem, slowly, after a disturbance has occurred.
Example; Beaver dams cause water to flood the forests, not all at once, but gradually.
When a species loses their habit, usually due to human activities.
Example; The loss of a pond due to a drought, or the draining of wetlands near human houses, to reduce the population of mosquito's.
The deconstruction of a forest which is then never replanted, (once again) usually due to human activities.
Example; The loss of forest due to the construction of shopping mall.
The introduction of a species not from the area, usually introduced through the ballast water of a ship (ballast water meaning the water used to keep the ship stable at sea) or through the shipment of foreign goods or foods.
Examples; Round Gobies, they were introduced most likely through ballast water and are now in all the great lakes.
Alien species that upset the equilibrium of the new area. They cause massive changes to the trophic levels because they eat whatever they want, which upsets the higher population levels ultimately resulting in top down population regulation, or even bottom up population regulation (if the invasive species is a primary producer) they also affect the equilibrium greatly by affecting the population size of the ecosystem by breeding.
Examples; Zebra Mussels arrived through ballast water, and since then have invaded the great lakes, out competing all native organisms previously living there, and have bred to an extreme. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) states in an article that "700,000 zebra mussels have been found in only one square yard of surface area on boats, pilings, and pipes."
The use of resources until there are none left. Exploiting the resources in an ecosystem or area.
Example; Atlantic Cod in North America has been overfished so much that the population has declined by 90%
The death of a species.
Example; The dinosaurs are extinct, because there are no more on the Earth anymore.
The current accelerated rate of extinction.
Example; In a study of over 40 000 species, 39% were found to be at the risk of extinction (endangered)
Restoration ecology is the process of restoring destroyed or degraded ecosystems with human interventions.
Example; The restoration of the Don Valley Brick Works, a run down brick factory at the edge of Toronto.
The replanting of places where forests once stood. Restoring the forest.
Example; The reforestation of Canadian forests that included near extinct trees such as sugar maple, American beech, hickory and ash.
Using a species to control an invasive, or undesirable species.
Example; Parastoids used to control the population of Gypsy Moths.
Living plants or fungi used to remove toxins from ecosystems.
Examples; Plants used to clean up the toxins released by oil spills.
Organisms used to add nutrients to the soil of an ecosystem.
Example; Clovers are used to add nitrogen back into the soil.
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