Community Ecology

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  1. Community
    biological assemblage of populations of various species living and interacting at a given time and place
  2. Niche
    • role of an organism in an environment
    • "profession"
  3. Habitat
    • environment in which the organism livesĀ 
    • "address"
  4. Community Characteristics
    • Diversity
    • Dominant Species
    • Prevalent Form of Vegetation
    • Stability
    • Structure
  5. Diversity
    variety of kinds of organisms
  6. Components of Diversity
    • species richness
    • relative abundance
  7. Dominant Species
    • Greatest abundance or biomass
    • May not be the most important in maintaining overall stability
  8. Stability
    ability to return to original state when disturbed
  9. Keystone Species
    • Predator (or herbivore), not often dominant
    • Maintains community structure/diversity
    • removal may be catastrophic
    • keep species in check that might outcompete other species
    • E.g. Starfish in relation to barnacles and mussels (muscles cannot survive with barnacles, starfish eat barnacles)
  10. Vertical Zonation
    Various species will occupy different zones (like in tall trees)
  11. Mutualism
    • both species benefit (+/-)
    • Eg: Intestinal bacteria in humans give Vitamin K while getting a stable environment
  12. Commensalism
    • one benefits, other no effect (+/0)
    • E.g.: Follicle mites do no harm on human head, but have stable environment to live and reproduce
  13. Parasitism
    • one harmed (host), one benefits (parasite) (+/-)
    • E.g.: Tapeworms
  14. Predation
    • (+/- and -)
    • Predator = eater
    • Prey = eatee
    • Prey generally killed and eaten immediately
    • E.g.: frog/fly
  15. Prey Defenses for Plants
    • chemical deterrents (poisons, tastes)
    • physical deterrents (spines, thorns)
    • mutualism (ant acacias)
  16. Prey Defenses for Animals
    • SpeedĀ 
    • Vision, smell
    • Chemicals (skunk)
    • Mimicry
    • Advertise with bright colors and be toxic
  17. Competition
    • (-/-)
    • Detrimental to both species
    • occurs when resource limited
    • intensity of competition based on niche similarity
  18. Outcomes of Competition
    • Competitive Exclusion
    • Competitive Equilibrium
  19. Competitive Exclusion
    One species drives the other to extinction
  20. Competitive Equilibrium
    • Species co-exist
    • Use non-overlapping parts of niches
  21. Fundamental/Potential Niche
    based on species' suitable range of environmental conditions
  22. Actual/Realized Niche
    Based on environmental factors

Card Set Information

Community Ecology
2014-10-18 21:26:07
BIO 181 Exam II
Communal shtuff
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