Skeletal and Muscular system

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Skeletal and Muscular system
2014-10-14 14:37:46
Anatomy Physiology

Quiz of 10/03/2014
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  1. what is the skeletal system composed of
    • joints: where bones form attachments
    • ligaments: fibrous cords that bind bones together at joints
    • many types of cartilage and a lot of connective tissue (stabilizes bones)
  2. Functions of the Skeletal System (6)
    • 1. Provides support: framework (ex- vertebrae supporting the head)
    • 2. Protection of viscera: ex- skull protects brain
    • 3. Movement: the skeletal system moves at joints; muscles pull on bones, tendons attach bones to muscle
    • 4. Storage of minerals: such as calcium and phosphorus in the intercellular matrix
    • 5. Hematopoiesis: synthesis of blood cells, takes place in the red bone marrow (active)
    • 6. Fat Storage: in yellow bone marrow (inactive but can become active if needed)
  3. growth factors
    • influence growth
    • found in intercellular matrix
  4. Types of bones
    • Long bones: long shaped- humerous, femer
    • Short bones: small chunky bones; wrist, ankle
    • Flat Bones: skull, sternum, ribs
    • Irregular Bones: everything else; vertebrae
  5. Types of bone tissue (or osseous tissue)
    • compact: dense; on outer layer of bone
    • spongy (cancellous): not as dense, in a mesh with spaces that have bone marrow
  6. trabeculae
    • pieces of bone tissue that form in the mesh of the spongy bone
    • found internal to the compact bone
  7. Structures of the long bone
    • marrow cavity
    • epiphysis (-es plural)
    • diaphysis
    • epiphyseal plate
  8. marrow cavity
    • medullary cavity
    • in adult there is yellow bone marrow here
  9. epiphysis
    • rounded end, 2 of them
    • thin layer of compact bone on outside, inside has spongy bone
    • gives support while being light and acts as a place where joints are and can take stress
    • roundness gives stability and allows for muscle attachment
  10. diaphysis
    • has thick compact bone but is a hollow cylinder with a marrow cavity inside
    • gives strength and support without a lot of weight because of hollowness
  11. epiphyseal plate
    • growth plate
    • area of cartilage in a bone that is still growing
    • once it has fully hardened, and growth has stopped it becomes the epiphyseal line
  12. articular cartilage
    • cartilage at joints
    • type of hyaline cartilage
    • functions to cushion the joint
    • covers each epiphysis of long bones
  13. Membranes of the long bone
    • periosteum: on outside surface of the bone except right at the joint, has 2 layers
    • endosteum: inside membrane, lines marrow cavity
  14. 2 layers of the periosteum
    • fibrous layer: outer layer, dense irregular connective tissue
    • osteogenic layer: inner layer, contains osteoblasts
  15. function of periosteum (3)
    • 1. bone growth- especially in diameter
    • 2. blood in membrane important for nutrition of bone
    • 3. attaching ligaments and tendons bc the collagen fibers in the fibrous layer will make connections to the fibrous cords by extending
  16. function of endosteum
    • bone growth
    • has osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  17. osteoblasts
    • bone forming cells
    • important for bone synthesis and make key elements that make bone strong and hard
  18. osteoclasts
    • bone destroying cells
    • help hollow out bone as it grows in diameter
  19. osteogenetic cells
    • bone stem cells
    • immature cell and other bone cells develop from it, except osteoclasts
  20. osteocytes
    regular mature bone cells
  21. types of bone cells
    • osteoblasts
    • osteoclasts
    • osteogenic cells
    • osteocytes
  22. Structure of other shapes of bones (not long bone)
    • no marrow cavity
    • outer layer compact bone and inner layer spongy bone
    • there is still a periosteum and endosteum but no marrow cavity just spongy bone
    • bone marrow in spongy bone
    • some, such as flat and irregular have more red bone marrow
  23. Red bone marrow
    • has blood
    • active in hematopoesis
    • when young, many bones have this type and becomes yellow when older
    • in adults only in spongy bone of flat bones (skull and sternum)- red marrow here called diploe
    • some irregular bone (vertebrae, hips)
    • only proximal epiphysis of long bones
  24. bone marrow biopsy
    takes a sample of bone marrow by drilling through the bone to test for cancer of the blood cells
  25. Lacunae
    • spaces in layers of bone with cells inside them 
    • osteocytes found here
  26. composition of intercellular matrix
    • 35% organic- strong: contains collagen fibers (proteins)
    • 65% inorganic: series of mostly calcium crystals called hydroxyapetite
  27. what is in the organic part of the intercellular matrix
    • mucopolysaccharides (carbohydrates and proteins) have 2 types
    • collagen fibers and mucopolysaccharides made by osteoblasts and released into intercellular matrix
  28. 2 types of mucopolysaccharides
    • proteoglycans
    • glucoproteins
  29. what are the calcium crystals in the inorganic layer and other minerals?
    • calcium phosphate
    • calcium carbonate
    • calcium hydroxide
    • other minerals: magnesium iron, sodium
  30. What is compact bone made up of?
    densely packed haversion systems (or osteons)
  31. osteons
    • cylindrical units of intercellular matrix with lacunae
    • in the center is a central canal with blood vessels and nerves
  32. how does the bone get nutrients through blood?
    • off of the central canal in the osteons are perferating canals with blood (which are perpendicular in order to reach all layers of the bone)
    • cells get blood access with nutrients and oxygen from small channels from lacunae
  33. spongy bone
    • doesnt have same dense appearance
    • contains trabeculae and osteocytes
    • no central canal, but there are blood vessels associated with the endostium
    • less complicated
  34. trabeculae
    irregular lamellae, not tightly packed
  35. Cartilage
    intercellular material is a firm gel
  36. chondrocytes
    • cartilage cells
    • in lacunae
  37. Blood system in cartilage
    no complicated blood system, relatively avascular with very little blood supply (diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from nearby blood)
  38. 2 Types of cartilage associated with the skeletal system
    • hyaline cartilage: articular and costal (between ribs and sternum)
    • fibrous cartilage: occurs at discs between vertebrae, miniscous discs at some joints such as the knee
  39. meniscous discs
    pads of cartilage that relieve pressure
  40. Bone formation
    also called ossification or osteogenesis (bones become ossified), 2 stages
  41. Flexion
    Bending, decreasing the angle between bones
  42. Abduction
    Move away from median plane
  43. Rotation
    • Pivot, turn bone on its axis.
    • Ex: turning head
  44. Extension
  45. Adduction
    Move toward medial plane
  46. Circumduction
    Move bone in fork of cone/distal end forms circle
  47. Elevation
  48. Protraction
    Move part forward
  49. pronation
    turn forarm or body so that the back of the hand is forward or the face is down
  50. supination
    turn forarm or body so that the palm is forward or the face is up
  51. inversion
    turn ankle so the sole of the foot is in
  52. eversion
    turn ankle so the sole of the foot is out
  53. Dorsiflexion
    move foot so toe is pointing up
  54. Plantar Flexion
    move foot so toe is pointing down
  55. opposition
    move thumb to touch other fingers on the same hand
  56. Retraction
    moving part back
  57. Depression
  58. Embryo types of bone development
    1. intramembranous ossification (the bone develops from a fibrous membrane)2. endochondrial ossification (bone develops from cartilage
  59. 2 stages of bone formation
    • 1. the osteoblasts make and release into the matrix the organic compounds (collagen fibers and mucopolysaccharides)
    • 2. calcification- the deposit of the inorganic salts in the matrix
  60. Development of bone in children
    as children grow they make more soft tissue and it then becomes ossified
  61. Development of bone in adults
    there is remodeling of the bone (repair and balance between osteoblasts and clasts.
  62. types of Bone formation in the embryo
    • 1. intramembranous ossification (the bone develops from a fibrous membrane); ex bones of the skull- soft spots or fontonelles are membranes that have not ossified 
    • 2. endochondrial ossification- bone develops from cartilage
  63. types of Bone growth in the long bone
    • longitudinal growth
    • appositional growth
  64. longitudinal growth
    bone growth in length, starts out in the center of the bone and you have to make more cartilage and then start ossifying it
  65. Types and locations of ossification centers
    • primary ossification center: where bone growth starts first, located in the middle of the diaphysis
    • secondary ossification: occurs in the 2 end epiphyses
  66. appostitional growth
    • growth in diameter
    • as the bone gets longer it also gets wider but you have to worry about the marrow cavity
    • --->osteoblasts of the periostium will build the bon tissue
    • ---> osteoclasts of the endosteum will break down some bone to hollow out the marrow cavity
  67. What are the steps of bone repair if you get a fracture or break in a bone
    • 1. there will be bleeding inside that must be stopped, you will form a hematoma
    • 2. cartilage will form in a fibrocartilagenous callus to connect the ends of the bone
    • ---> phagocytic cells engulf and destroy debris
    • 3. formation of a bony callus- made of spongy bone
    • 4. Bone remodeling- if theres excess tissue in the area (esp outside the diaphysis) it will be broken down and new compact bone is made on the outside to keep it strong
  68. Changes in the bone/skeleton as a child
    • formation> destruction causing growth
    • skeleton- fontonels become ossified as the child grows older; head starts off as larger bc brain must develop early and rest of the skeleton grows in
    • curvature of the vertebral column changes to support the head as the child goes from crawling to walking
  69. Changes in the bone/skeleton as a young adult
    rate of bone formation= rate of destruction, so you stay the same height
  70. changes in the bone/skeleton as an older adult
    • rate of destruction is often > than the rate of formation resulting in loss of bone tissue
    • as you get older there is an increased risk of osteoperosis
  71. bone atrophy
    bone shrinking
  72. osteoporosis
    porous bone that is less strong and breaks more easily
  73. are women or men more at risk for osteoporosis
    • women more at risk than men because estrogen stimulates osteoblast activity and calcium deposit and while men can convert testosterone to estrogen to do so, during menopause women lose a lot of estrogen and cant keep bones strong
    • decrease in testosterone is much slower and more gradual
  74. How to promote bone strength
    • diet with enough calcium and vitamin D (needed to absorb calcium from food)
    • exercise
    • women using medication to help with menopause
  75. How to women at menopause promote bone strength
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy: estrogen received, has significant risk including heart attack, stroke, breast cancer, etc
    • variety of medications: specifically target bone strength, most work by decreasing# and activity of osteoclasts, no severe side effects like HRT
  76. Homeostasis of Calcium in the blood
    • it has a narrow range
    • calcium levels are vital for neuromuscular activity, heart functioning and blood clotting
    • if theres not enough calcium in your diet you will break down bone tissue to release the calcium stored there into the blood
    • this action is stimulated by the parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid gland
    • this hormone also increases Ca+ absorption from food and decreases it in excretion
  77. Calcium deficiency in a child
    • called ricket (also from too little vitamin d and phosphorus)
    • bones will be too soft
    • severely bowed legs
    • malformation of bone
    • poor growth- no hormonal growth and calcification of tissue
  78. Adult Rickets
    • called osteomalacia
    • a dietary cause of osteoperosis
    • bones will be softened and weakened
  79. articulation
  80. what are the 3 specific types of joints
    • Fibrous: little to no movement, fibrous connective tissue between bones, no joint cavity
    • Cartilagenous: little or no movement, cartilage between bones, no joint cavity
    • Synovial (diathrotic): Free movement, synovial joint cavity between bones with synovial fluid
  81. Subclasses of fibrous joints
    • sutures: immovable joints of skull, closed sutures also called synostoses
    • syndesmoses: joint held together by a ligament (ex: tibia/fibula) slight movement
    • gomphoses: teeth bound to bone with ligamens, no movement
  82. Subclasses of cartiligenous joints
    • symphyses: fibrocartilage between bones, slight movement (ex: pubic symphyses)
    • synchondroses: hyaline cartilage between surfaces, no movement (ex: ephyseal plate of growing bones, costal cartilage between ribs/sternum)
  83. Types of synovial joints and examples
    • Plane: flat surfaces, nonaxial gliding movement- between carpals
    • Hinge: spool in concave surface, uniaxial- elbow, flex/extend
    • Pivot: cone in depression, uniaxial rotation around a central axis- between atlas/axis
    • Condyloid (Ellipsoidal): oval in elliptical cavity, biaxial- between metacarpals/phalanges or radius/carpals
    • Saddle: saddle in socket, like condyloid but more movement- twiddling thumbs
    • Ball and Socket: ball head in concave socket, multi axial, largest range of movement- shoulder or hip
  84. Joint Injuries and disorders
    • sprain
    • strain
    • dislocation
    • arthritis
    • bursitis
    • tendonitis
    • sinusitis
    • carpel tunnel syndrome
  85. sprain
    • twisting a joint (not broken)
    • you may stretch or tear a ligament
    • there may be swelling (edema) meaning an increase fluid due to blood vessel damage inside causing fluid to collect in the area
  86. Strain
    • a stretched or partly torn muscle
    • can be minor if just strained or more severe if you slightly tear the muscle
    • can happen from sudden overpowering movement or overuse
  87. dislocation
    • at a joint, bones are forced out of alignment
    • also called luxation
    • if the joint is dislocated, you must reduce the angle and return it to its position
  88. cartilage tear
    • can happen from compression and stress to the area
    • ex- meniscous tear in knee
  89. Arthroscopic Surgery
    • joint repair, ie cartilage ligament etc
    • arthroscope: small instrument that uses light to view and repair the area without making a large incision
  90. Arthritis
    • inflammation of a joint
    • irritation that happens causing edema, tenderness, and less movement
    • starts with the synovial membrane and may end up affecting cartilage and bone
    • 3 types
  91. Types of arthritis
    • osteoarthrits (degenerative joint disease)
    • rhumetoid arthritis
    • gout (gouty) arthritis
  92. osteoarthritis
    • most common type
    • increases in incidence with aging
    • can be mild or severe
  93. Rhumetoid Arthritis
    • an autoimmune disease
    • immune system finds the joint area foreign and attacks it
    • much more severe than reg arthritis and will often cause cartilage and bone deformities
    • collagen in the tissue is affected
    • more common in women
    • develops age 30-50
  94. Gout Arthritis
    • a specific type that is related to uric acid (nitrogen related waste product from protein breakdown)
    • accumulates in the joint area causing irritiation
    • often big toe, foot, leg
    • more common in men b/c estrogen stimulates uric acid excretion (women lose estrogen in menopause)
  95. Bursitis
    • the irritation/inflammation of the bursa
    • knee and shoulder most common affected
    • swelling, pain, decreased movement
  96. Bursa
    fluid filled sac, synovial membranes, certain areas, pressure cushions joints
  97. Tendonitis
    inflammation of the tendon
  98. Sinusitis
    • an inflammation and often infection of the sinuses in the head
    • cold or allergy- swelling of membranes around nasal cavity can block normal mucous passageways associated with the nose and sinuses, then bacteria can grow and cause a secondary infection- can be treated with antibiotics
  99. Sinus
    • a general term meaning a space (paranasal sinus- around nose)
    • an air filled chamber in the skull
    • in bones: maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
    • connected to nasal cavity
    • lightens the head and moistens the air
  100. carpel tunnel syndrome
    • the organization of the carpel bones create a space or tunnel where an inflammation of tendons in the wrist occurs 
    • occurs due to repeated physical stress (ex- working at a computer)
    • a type or repetative motion injury
    • tendons get swollen and they put pressure on a nerve (median nerve)- can cause numbness and pain in the fingers
    • treatment depends on severity, can range from splint to surgery
  101. What are the organs of the muscular system?
    • skeletal muscles
    • predominant tissue type
  102. myology
    the study of muscles
  103. orthopedics
    deals with disorders of both the skeletal and muscular systems
  104. special characteristics that allow Skeletal muscle tissue to do its job
    • contractility: ability to contract/move
    • good responsiveness: skeletal muscles will not contract unless they receive a nervous stimuli
    • extensibility: can be stretched, but is elastic and can return or recoil to the resting length
  105. Functions of the muscular system
    • Movement of the body (muscles contract and pull on bones)
    • Stabilizing joints (b/c muscles are attached to tendons)
    • Helping to maintain body temperature (ATP needed to contract muscle, ATP comes from breakdown of glucose and when its produced, so is heat), shivering also produces some heat
  106. Where are cardiac and smooth muscle
    • in the internal organs
    • they regulate the viscera and are completely seperately controlled by the nervous system
  107. Organization of skeletal muscle
    • made of skeletal muscle tissue, and these muscle cells are also culled muscle fibers because the cells are very long
    • there is also connective tissue, nervous tissue and blood vessels
  108. Connective tissue elements associated with the muscle
    • there are sheets or coverings (3 layers)
    • tendons
    • aponeurosis
    • superficial fascia 
    • deep fascia
  109. 3 layers of sheets
    • epimysium: outermost, covering over the whole entire muscle organ
    • perimysium: the sheet around a bundle of muscle fibers or fascicle
    • endomysium: around the individual muscle cells (innermost)
  110. tendons
    • dense cords connecting the muscle to bone
    • have connections at each end so one end of the muscle will be moving and the other end fixed
  111. insertion bone
    moves at joint
  112. origin bone
    does not move
  113. Aponeurosis
    • a broad, flat sheet of connective tissue
    • attaches muscle to nearby structures (ex- connecting different abdominal muscles)
  114. Superficial Fascia
    loose connective tissue right under the skin
  115. Deep fascia
    • dense regular connective tissue under the superficial fassia
    • stronger
  116. How many nuclei and mitochondria do muscle cells have?
    hundreds because the cells are so long
  117. Special structures of muscle cells
    • sarcolemma
    • sarcoplasm
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • myofibrils
    • striations
  118. sarcolemma
    the muscle cell membrane
  119. sarcoplasm
    muscle cell cytoplasm
  120. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • very important for contraction
  121. Myofibrils
    • long organelles that almost fill the cytoplasm of the cell
    • the contractile elements
    • in order for the cell to shorten when contracting each myofibril contracts
    • made up of 2 types of filaments: thick filaments and thin filaments
  122. thick filaments
    contain myosin, a protein that has heads that stick out towards the thin filaments
  123. thin filaments
    mainly contains actin, but also troponin and tropomyosin, which prevent contraction until the muscle is stimulated
  124. Striations
    • stripes
    • longitudinally- myofibrils
    • line up alternating thick and thin filaments, creating dark and light bands
  125. sarcomere
    • a unit of measurement in the myofibril
    • goes from the middle of one tin filament to the middle of the next
    • when the cell is relaxed the sarcomere is normal length but is shortened during contraction
    • sarcomeres are at all myofibrils which run the entire length of the cell
  126. What causes skeletal muscle to contract
    • a nervous stimulation
    • different from other muscles, heart muscles for example contract automatically
  127. neurons
    • send impulses to muscle cells
    • somatic motor neurons
    • somatic nervous system controlls skeletal muscles
  128. what is in the general structure of a neuron
    dendrites pick up, pass to body, pass to axon, to axon terminals
  129. What happens when the nervous impulse reaches the axon terminals?
    acetylcholine, a chemical neurotransmitter is released from the synaptic vessicles and from the axon terminals to stimulate the muscle cell membrane (sarcolemma)
  130. synapse
    • where a neuron communicates with another cell (in this case the muscle cell)
    • the specific synapse between a somatic motor neuron and a muscle cell is called a neuromuscular junction
  131. what needs to happen for acetylcholine to be released?
    • calcium must first be taken up into the bouton from the extracellular fluid
    • the impulse reaches the bouton, the ca+ is taken up and the acetylcholine is relased from the bouton into the synaptic cleft and binds to the receptor on the sarcolemma
  132. what happens once the acetylcholine binds to the muscle cell membrane?
    • binding triggers a response in the muscle cell
    • neurotransmitter is not taken up into the muscle cell but it will cause an impulse generated in the sarcolemma
    • acetylcholine is degraded after, broken down by an enzyme in the synaptic cleft called acetylcholinestase
  133. t-tubules
    • transverse tubules
    • cell membrane forms tubules that are all along the myofibrils and bring the impulse to the interior of the cells
  134. Where does the impulse travel
    from the sarcolemma to the t tubules then to the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  135. what happens once the impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    calcium ions in the SR are critical for muscle contraction and the calcium inside it is released when the impulse reaches the SR
  136. Steps of cell contraction
    • 1. a nervous impulse in the motor neuron- calcium enters the axon terminal and acetylcholine is released from the terminal, diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds ot the receptor on the sarcolemma; then ion channels on the sarcolemma open (due to impulse) and Na+ will enter the muscle cell while K+ leaves it
    • 2. An impulse generates over the whole sarcolemma, then acetylcholine is degraded by the acetylcholinesterase in the synapse
    • 3. Impulse spreads into the t tubules and then to the SR, impulse has been brought to the interior of the cell
    • 4. ca+ is released from SR into the sarcoplasm and will attach onto the troponin of the thin filaments, changing shape and changing tropomyosin and then causing binding sites on the actin to be revealed
    • 5. bc actin is now exposed, myosin of the thick filaments forms cross bridges with the actin of the thin filaments- they attach; the thick fils pull on the thin causing them to slide- causes sarcomeres to shorten, thin fils are pulled towards the middle of the thick, all myofibrils shorten at the same time and if enough cells shorten, the whole muscle will
  137. do thick and thin filaments shorten during contraction?
    no, they slide over eachother, only sarcomeres shorten
  138. Motor unit
    • the motor neuron and all muscle fibers supplied by the neuron
    • in other words the neuron and all cells it transmits an impulse to
  139. Where does energy for contraction come from?
    • ATP
    • the hundreds of mitochondria in muscle cells make it by reacting creatine phosphate with ADP
    • ATP breakdown= ADP+ phosphate+ free energy for contraction
    • oxygen needed to completely break down nutrients for ATP
  140. How is oxygen stored to be used for contraction
    • hemaglobin is an oxygen binding molecule in the blood
    • myoglobin is the oxygen binding molecule in muscle cells
  141. Explain muscle relaxation
    • ca+ separates from the thin fils and will go back to the SR
    • filaments return to the relaxed state- they separate to their position before contraction
    • troponin and tropomyosin prevent filament interaction until another impulse comes
  142. elastic filaments
    a protein called titan helps the recoil where the filmaents spring back to the resting position
  143. myogram
    a graph showing the extent of muscle contraction (see graphs in notebook to study)
  144. How does the body normally contract
    usually has sustained contraction, not jerky twitches
  145. What is needed to produce sustained contraction
    • more than one stimulus- called graded muscle responses
    • if the stimuli are very close together you have sustained contraction without any relaxation until you stop the stimuli
  146. temporal summation
    additive effect of multiple stimuli of the same strength in succession- happens before the muscle completely relaxes, causing sustained contraction until the stimulus stops
  147. Tetanus
    • sustained contraction
    • this is normal (not the disease) and when you stop the stimulus, the muscle relaxes
  148. tetanus (disease)
    • abnormal sustained contraction and the muscle does not relax
    • caused by a bacterial infection where the bacteria produce a toxin that affects motor neruons
    • han happen in the facial area causing lockjaw
  149. recruitment
    • increases in the strength of the stimulus, causing stronger contraction 
    • due to recruiting or adding up multiple motor units
    • also called multiple motor unit summation
  150. subthreshold stimulus
    • a weak stimulus that causes no observable contraction
    • one or 2 cells may be affected but you wont see anything
  151. threshold stimulus
    • the smallest stimulus to cause an observable contraction
    • enough motor units are affected to cause partial contraction of a whole muscle
  152. maximal stimulus
    • causes the maximal response
    • complete contraction of the whole muscle- all cells theoretically are contracting
    • all motor units are recruited and involved in the contraction
  153. What eventually happens to the muscle after the stimulus is received
    the muscle will reach a plateau where there is maximum contraction that wont increase even with a stronger stimulus
  154. treppe
    • the principle of a muscle warming up
    • a muscle contracts with more force after it has already been contracting- also called staircase phenomenon (has a staircase graph)
    • ---> this is why its good for people to warm up before an event
    • calcium is readily available, heat present to speed up reactions making it more efficient
  155. muscle tone
    • muscles partly contracted 
    • tone/posture
    • no movement to do this
    • different groups of motor units are contracted at different times- the neuron + the muscle cells it innervates
  156. isotonic contraction
    • produces movement or pressure "iso"- same "tonic"- tension
    • doesnt produce tension
    • 2 types both needed for coordination of movement
  157. 2 types of isotonic contraction
    • concentric isotonic contraction: the muscle shortens
    • eccentric isotonic contraction: the muscle lengthens; the opposite of the muscle with concentric contraction
  158. isometric contraction
    • does not produce movement
    • the muscle stays the same measurement length, produces tension
    • ex: holding something heavy 
    • sometimes tension isn't held because it also includes holding a position or posture, this isnt creating tension, its just working against gravity
  159. what is an example of a movement that involves isotonic and isometric contraction?
    going to pick up something heavy- tension and movement
  160. prime mover
    • agonist
    • the main muscle in a movement
  161. antagonist
    • the muscle with the opposite function of the agonist
    • it either relaxes when the agonist contracts or elongates (stretches)
    • if you try to contract this and the agonist at the same time there will only be tension, no movement
  162. synergist
    • a muscle that enhances the prime mover's action
    • it either increases the movement or helps in someway to decrease unnecessary movement (stabilizes)
  163. fixator
    • a type of synergist
    • immobilizes the prime mover's origin
    • the muscle holding position in posture
  164. Function of muscle based on location
    • a muscle moving part of the body generally lies proximal (closer to the trunk) than that part
    • ex: bicepts move forearm, forearm muscles move hand
  165. factors that affect the extent of muscle contraction
    • the strength and frequency (rate of impulses) of the stimuli
    • nutrition and oxygen
    • warming up
    • giving a muscle a load or weight- this will increase the force of contraction (to a limit)
    • ---> any weight bearing exercise
  166. muscle fatigue
    • the inability of a muscle to contract when receiving a stimuli
    • due to overuse of the muscle
    • an effect of longterm contraction and exercise
  167. causes of muscle fatigue
    • you may not get enough ATP b/c of lack of oxygen
    • dehydration- losing 5% of water decreases muscle contraction by 30%
    • ionic imbalance
  168. contracture
    • continuous contraction of the muscle due to a lack of ATP, b/c without ATP the myosin crossbridges are unable to detatch from the actin and the muscle stays tightened
    • a type of cramp from overuse
  169. oxygen debt
    • o2 needed for aerobic respiration to completely break down nutrients and get enough ATP out of them
    • if you dont have enough o2 when exercising, you will increase the breath rate and depth (homeostatic balance)
    • if you stilll dont have enough after that you have oxygen debt- the oxygen is depleted
  170. inaerobic respiration
    • instead of glucose being converted to co2, h2o, atp and heat  you will just convert it to lactic acid-->also called glycolysis- less ATP is produced this way but less oxygen needed
    • lactic acid can cause muscle soreness
  171. What are the parts to muscle performance
    • power (strength)
    • endurance (how long it lasts)
  172. 2 factors that affect muscle performance of an individual muscle
    • 1.type of muscle cells in the muscle
    • 2. contraction
  173. types of muscle cells in the muscle
    muscles contain mixtures of muscle cell types but it certain muscles, certain types predominate
  174. how are muscle cell types classified
    • 1. by the speed of contraction (fast or slow)
    • 2. how the ATP is generated (oxidative metabolism or glycolitic which has not as high o2 requirement, and is faster but less ATP produced)
  175. 3 main types of muscle fibers
    • slow oxidative fibers
    • fast oxidative fibers
    • fast glycolytic fibers
  176. slow oxidative fibers
    • useful for endurance activities (like running a marathon) and maintaining position
    • fibers have slow speed but aerobic production of ATP
    • these cells have a lot of myoglobin causing it to last a long time
    • slow rate of fatigue
    • fibers are red due to a lot of myoglobin and capillaries
  177. fast oxidative fibers
    • for things like sprinting
    • fast speed of contraction
    • aerobic production of ATP
    • high amount of o2 needed so these cells have a high amount of myoglobin to store it
    • intermediate rate of fatigue
    • color is red/pink (not as many capillaries)
  178. fast glycolytic fibers
    • short term intense exercise (powerful), a burst
    • ex: hitting a baseball
    • fast speed
    • anaerobic production of ATP
    • little o2 needed so little myoglobin
    • fast rate of fatigue (you cant do these exercises long term)
    • color is white because low myoglobin and little to no capillaries
  179. hypertrophy of muscles
    • enlarged muscles
    • to make muscles larger they have to be stimulated repeatedly with a weight to maximize the tension (isometrics- build tension in muscles)
    • this in addition to a high protein diet will cause muscles to grow
  180. how do muscles grow in an adult
    you dont make more cells but youll  make more filaments and myofibrils- the cells will have a wider diameter
  181. atrophy of muscles
    • muscle fibers get smaller and weaker due to less use (inactivity, injury, spinal cord damage)
    • reversable if you have therapy early enough to use the muscle
    • if the cells die, it is not reversible
  182. 3 systems needed for movement that you can have lost or decreased movement from that will affect overall movement
    • skeletal: arthritis for example
    • muscular system: muscular dystrophy
    • nervous system: tetanus, polio, multiple sclerosis
  183. muscular dystrophy
    • degeneration or atrophy of muscle protein, causing muscle fibers to degenerate themselves
    • fibers lack dystrophin protein which stabilizes the sarcolemma
    • genetic, sex linked
    • without the stabilization, you will get tears in the cell membrane, followed by damage to the cells resulting in a decreased muscle mass
  184. poliomyelitis
    a virus that attacks the motor neurons in the spinal cord
  185. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    • destruction of the protective myelin sheath that is around the neurons axon
    • it speeds up impulses so this makes impulses travel slower
  186. anabolic steroids
    • people take testosterone or related steroids to stimulate muscle anabolism, increasing muscle mass
    • abusing these (taking to build muscle) causes many side effects
  187. side effects of abusing steroids
    • extra testosterone will cause negative feedback on a male's own testosterone, causing testes to shrink and decreasing sperm production
    • testosterone inhibits female hormones and contributes to masculination of the female body (can stop menstral cycle)
    • some test. is normally converted to est. and if you give extra test. the extra will convert too
    • increased test. increases blood cholesterol and risk of heart attack
    • "roid" rage
    • liver damage
    • risk of cancer
  188. what happens when extra testosterone recieved from steroids is converted to estrogen in the body?
    • males: possible increased breast production
    • teenagers: boys reach their adult height faster b/c of estrogen stimulating calcification of bone so they turn out shorter in later life
  189. physical conditioning
    • should have a balance of building muscle and cardiovascular exercise
    • 2 parts- resistance conditioning and aerobic/endurance exercise
  190. resistance conditioning
    • isometrics for muscle development
    • increase muscle size and mitochondria storage of glycogen- (a polymer made from glucose)
    • the storage form of carbohydrate in our bodies,
  191. aerobic/endurance exercise
    • increased use of o2 + nutrients
    • jogging, running, swimming
    • enhances cardiovascular functioning--> efficiency of heart function, if consistant you can have a very enhanced heart that can pump easier
    • enhances muscle performance
    • increase in mitochondria, myoglobin, and capillaries
  192. Abnormal contractions
    • convulsions
    • muscle spasms
    • muscle cramps
  193. convulsions
    • situations where you have uncoordinated tetanus of various groups of muscles
    • many possible causes (ususally in the nervous system, such as epilepsy)
  194. muscle spasm
    • a "tick"
    • an involuntary twitch
    • we dont always know the cause, could be your tired, stressed, etc
  195. muscle cramps
    • involuntary forced contraction of a muscle where it wont relax in the usual way
    • many possible causes- overexertion, dehydration with or without ionic balance in tissue, inactivity
  196. temperature changes in muscle
    • if muscle is tight or tense- heat increases blood flow
    • if muscle is sore, tender or swollen- cold causes pain relief, decreases inflammation or swelling