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Describe what is meant by FTT (or FTE)
Flight technical tolerance (or error). The accuracy with which the pilot can fly with the information he has available. Doesn't include blunder errors.

What is system use accuracy?
The angular tolerance of a ground based navaid. It gets worse the further the distance from the navaid.

What factors contribute to system use accuracy?
 ground system tolerance
 airborne recieving system tolerance
 flight technical tolerance

Why does overall system use accuracy differ from an on track, and an intersecting facility?
FTT is not applied to the intersecting facility.

What does the RSS (Root sum square) method mean?
Where individual errors are deemed independent, and unlikely to happen simultaneously to their full extent it can be used to derive a mean of an error or tolerance. The square of individual errors are squared, and the sum square rooted.

What are the tracking and intersecting aid tolerances for a VOR?
5.2 and 4.5 degrees respectively

What are the tracking and intersecting aid tolerances for an NDB
6.9 and 6.2 degrees respectively

What are the tracking and intersecting aid tolerances for a ILS LLZ
2.4 and 1.4 degrees respectively

What are the tracking and intersecting aid tolerances for a DME?
0.25NM + 1.25% of the distance from the station. Same for tracking (ie arc) and intersecting.

What is the cone of silence angle for a NDB?
40 degrees

What is the cone of silence angle for a VOR?
50 degrees

Can the cone of silence angle be reduced any way?
Only if flight inspected, and better performance demonstrated. Reduced cone angle can only be applied if published in AIP.

What cone of silence entry tolerance is applied to a VOR?
15 degrees

What cone of silence entry tolerance is applied to a NDB?
15 degrees

What steering tolerance is applied in the cone of silence for a VOR?
5 degrees to the nominal inbound track

What steering tolerance is applied in the cone of silence for a NDB?
5 degrees to the nominal inbound track

What are angular protection areas derived from?
System use accuracy

What are linear protection areas derived from?
deviations from the mean in a certain phase of flight.

Are linear protection areas bigger than angular ones?
YES

What is the controlling obstacle?
The obstacle in a protection area that dictates the design of the procedure. In level flight it will be the highest object in a given segment. For departures, it will be the object that dictates the highest gradient.

Why might OCA and MDA be different?
Operational reasons other than obstacle clearance might dictate a MDA. (eg lighting)

convert 1nm to km
x 1.852

convert 1m to feet
x 3.2808

convert 1nm to feet
x 6076

calculate the radius of the cone of silence at 7000' for a VOR station located at 3100'.
 r=h.tan50
 r=(70003100).tan(50)
 r=3900.tan(50)
 r=4647ft
 r=0.76nm

What is the minimum DME arc radius when used for track guidance on an ARRIVAL route?
10nm

What is the minimum DME arc radius when used for track guidance on an INITIAL approach?
7nm

When a DME arc joins a straight track, what is the maximum angle of intersection?
120 degrees, and if more that 70 deg a lead radial needs to be published.

When turning off a DME arc, a lead radial is required if the angle is between 70 and 120 degrees. How far before the new track should this lead radial be in the arrival, and in the initial segments?
arrival  as per turn anticipation calculation. initial  2nm.

At what point does the protection area change from enroute to initial approach criteria?
25nm track distance before the IAF.

What is the enroute semiwidth for VOR, DME and NDB?
8nm, 8nm, 10nm

What is the semi width for VOR, DME and NDB in the initial area? (Between enroute and IAF)
5nm for all aids

What is the formula for calculating distance on an arc?
S = ((2.r.pi)/360)/angle change

For a 12DME arc, what is the change in angle over a 25nm arc??

When navigating with respect to VOR or NDB in the initial approach segment, at what distance and angle do splays need to be added to the linear semiwidth area?
28nm and 10.3 deg for NDB, 37nm and 7.8deg for VOR.

What is the MOC in the inital segment?
300m

What is the optimum descent gradient in the initial approach?
4.0%

What is the maximum permissible descent gradient for inital approach?
8%

Are gradients calculated from the edge of fix tolerance areas, or from the nominal fix?
The nominal fix

In an inital approach, why would you bother with a DR track?
To avoid a track reversal.

What formula gives you the omnidirectional wind?
w=2h+47 (h = height in 1000's of ft)

Can the first leg of a procedure using a DR track use a NDB track guidance?
NO, ndb not allowed for signal quality reasons.

Where a DR track intercepts a final approach path, what should the angle of intercept be?
45 degrees

What is the maximum length of a DR track in an initial approach segment?
10nm

Can a base turn start at both a fix and a facility?
No, base turns can only start at a facility

What is the standard temperature assumed for design?
ISA + 15

What is the purpose of the intermediate approach segment?
To blend the initial approach and final segments. Aircraft configuration, speed, positioning adjustments are made for entry into the final segment.

What are the two types of intermediate approach segments?
One that begins at a designated intermediate approach fix, and one that begins upon completion of a DR track, reversal or racetrack procedure.

Does track guidance need to be provided inbound to the FAF in the intermediate segment?
YES

When it is not practicable to align the intermediate and final segment tracks, what considerations apply?
Max offset (for NPA) is 30 degrees. For turns greater than 10 degrees, final approach area needs to be widened on the outside of the turn as per "TP marked by a facility or vor".

What is the max and min length of an intermediate approach segment?
15NM max, 5NM min. Optimum is 10Nm, and shouldn't deviate from this unless operationally required. Minimum lengths increase for initialintermediate turns exceeding 90 degrees (to max of 120). Refer PANS OPS I441.

What is the primary MOC in the intermediate approach segment?
150m

What is the max permissible gradient in the intermediate approach segment?
5.2%. A horizontal segment a minimum of 1.5nm should be provided prior to the FAF for cat C & D. This can be reduced to 1.0nm for cat A and B specific approaches.

How do you calculate descent gradient in an intermediate segment if you don't have a defined IF?
Use table I431 "max/min descent on a reversal/racetrack" and grab the values for the inbound track.

What are the criteria that dictate whether an approach will be straight in or circling?
Alignment  final track within 15 degrees (30 deg for CAT A,B). The final approach track has to intercept runway centreline at or beyond 1400m from threshold. If the track doesn't cross the centreline, it has to be within 150m of extended centreline at 1400m.

What wind is circling radii based on?
25kt throughout the turn

What bank parameters are applied for circling procedures?
The lesser of 20 degrees, or 3 deg/sec turn rate

Does a missed approach have anything to do with a balked landing?
No. Balked landings usually happen on short final below OCA/H, and are protected by annex 14 surfaces.

Describe the three phases of a missed approach.
 1. The initial missed approach. This begins at the earliest MAPt and ends at the SOC (start of climb).
 2. The intermediate phase starts at the SOC and extends to the point where 50m obstacle clearance is first obtained and can be maintained.
 3. Final phase extends to the point at which a new approach, holding or return to enroute is initiated. Turns can be carried out in this phase.

How is the MAPt defined in a noFAF procedure?
By overheading a facility or fix.

Where is the optimum location of the MAPt?
At the runway threshold

What needs to be considered when moving a MAPt closer to the FAF?
The obstacle clearance altitude must not be LOWER than the height at the MAPt (when on the normal descent gradient). In some cases the OCA might need to be raised to meet this condition.

How is the distance from the MAPt to the SOC calculated when the MAPt is defined by a facility or fix?
 The MAPT fix tolerance is added to a "transitional" tolerance.
 The MAPT tolerance consists of the full fix tolerance, plus a 3 second reaction time. The 3 sec is calculated on the highest final approach speed for the relevant category, converted to TAS using aerodrome elevation and ISA +15, plus a tailwind component of 10kt.
 The transitional tolerance is an additional 15sec of flight with the same parameters (max TAS + tailwind).

How is the distance from the MAPt to the SOC calculated when the MAPt is defined by timing?
Use the tables I461 and I462. Take the largest of the two values for the given category.

