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  1. Principal Parts of Verbs
    are not the tense (time indicators) of the verb; they are the elements that we use to construct the various tense
  2. What are the four principal parts?
    • infinitive form 
    • simple past 
    • present participle 
    • past participle
  3. Infinitive form (present)
    the from used with to
  4. Simple Past
    past tense
  5. Present Participle
    the -ing form
  6. Past Participle
    the for used with has or have
  7. Regular Verb
    verb are formed with -ed
  8. Irregular Verb
    • verb not formed by adding -ed 
    • present participle by adding -ing 
    • past participle is part + n or en 
    • past participle is infinitive + n / en / ne 
    • final vowel change from i simple past to a and past participle to
  9. Active-vioce
    • the object receives the action 
    • subject + verb + object
  10. Passive-Voice
    • the subject receives the action 
    • object + "be" + past participle
  11. Subject - Verb Agreement
    • a singular subject = singular verb 
    • a plural subject = plural verb
  12. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Present Tense 

    • singular → verbs stem plus "s"
    • plural → verb stem without "s"
  13. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Indefinite Pronounce 
    words ending -one, -thing and -body → singular
  14. another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, enough, everyone, everybody, everything
  15. some, all, many, some people, some thing
  16. both, few, fewer, many, others, several
  17. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Compound Subject 
    subject that is joined with and → plural verbs
  18. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Neither/ or, either/or, not only/ but also
    verbs agrees with closer subject
  19. Subject - Verb Agreement
    together with, in addition to and including 
    theses prepositional phrase are NOT part of the subject of the sentence, can mentally cross them out.
  20. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Collective Nouns 
    • audience, band, class, committee, company 
    • referring to all together, as a unit → singular verb
    • referring to the member as individually → plural verb
  21. Pronoun Form 
    Subject Pronouns 
    • I
    • you
    • He, She, its
    • We
    • They
  22. Pronoun Form 
    Object Pronoun 
    • Me 
    • You
    • his, her, its
    • them
  23. Pronoun Form 
    Subject and Object of Pronoun
    • Subjective pronoun when its the subject of a verb doing the action  (Chris and he went to the baseball game.)
    • Objective pronoun when it gets the action of a verb (I gave Michelle and her a gift certificate)
    • objective pronoun when it follows a preposition
  24. Preposition
    • above, about, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, since, to, toward, through, under, until, up, upon, with and within.
    • sits before a noun to show the noun's relationship to another word in the sentence
  25. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in 
  26. number 
    • person 
    • gender
  27. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 
    • Pronoun: the words that substitute for or refer to a noun  
    • Antecedent: the words that a pronoun substitute for or refer
  28. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 
    Indefinite Pronoun (Singular )
    Ending in -one, -body and -things must be refereed to by singular pronouns: he, she, its; his, her, its
  29. Use who and whom to refer to
  30. Use that and which to refer to
    everything else
  31. When to Use "Who" vs. "Whom"
    • who = subject preforming the action 
    • whom = object reicing the action
  32. Has and Have
    Has is only for he, she and It
  33. Was and Were
    • I was 
    • You were 
    • he/she/it was

    • we were 
    • you were 
    • they were
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