Grammar

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Author:
bl04
ID:
284773
Filename:
Grammar
Updated:
2014-10-03 02:45:39
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English
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English
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  1. Principal Parts of Verbs
    are not the tense (time indicators) of the verb; they are the elements that we use to construct the various tense
  2. What are the four principal parts?
    • infinitive form 
    • simple past 
    • present participle 
    • past participle
  3. Infinitive form (present)
    the from used with to
  4. Simple Past
    past tense
  5. Present Participle
    the -ing form
  6. Past Participle
    the for used with has or have
  7. Regular Verb
    verb are formed with -ed
  8. Irregular Verb
    • verb not formed by adding -ed 
    • present participle by adding -ing 
    • past participle is part + n or en 
    • past participle is infinitive + n / en / ne 
    • final vowel change from i simple past to a and past participle to
  9. Active-vioce
    • the object receives the action 
    • subject + verb + object
  10. Passive-Voice
    • the subject receives the action 
    • object + "be" + past participle
  11. Subject - Verb Agreement
    • a singular subject = singular verb 
    • a plural subject = plural verb
  12. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Present Tense 


    • singular → verbs stem plus "s"
    • plural → verb stem without "s"
  13. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Indefinite Pronounce 
    words ending -one, -thing and -body → singular
  14. another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, enough, everyone, everybody, everything
    singular
  15. some, all, many, some people, some thing
    plural
  16. both, few, fewer, many, others, several
    plural
  17. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Compound Subject 
    subject that is joined with and → plural verbs
  18. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Neither/ or, either/or, not only/ but also
    verbs agrees with closer subject
  19. Subject - Verb Agreement
    together with, in addition to and including 
    theses prepositional phrase are NOT part of the subject of the sentence, can mentally cross them out.
  20. Subject - Verb Agreement
    Collective Nouns 
    • audience, band, class, committee, company 
    • referring to all together, as a unit → singular verb
    • referring to the member as individually → plural verb
  21. Pronoun Form 
    Subject Pronouns 
    • I
    • you
    • He, She, its
    • We
    • They
  22. Pronoun Form 
    Object Pronoun 
    • Me 
    • You
    • his, her, its
    • them
  23. Pronoun Form 
    Subject and Object of Pronoun
    • Subjective pronoun when its the subject of a verb doing the action  (Chris and he went to the baseball game.)
    • Objective pronoun when it gets the action of a verb (I gave Michelle and her a gift certificate)
    • objective pronoun when it follows a preposition
  24. Preposition
    • above, about, across, against, along, among, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, since, to, toward, through, under, until, up, upon, with and within.
    • sits before a noun to show the noun's relationship to another word in the sentence
  25. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in 
  26. number 
    • person 
    • gender
  27. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 
    Definition
    • Pronoun: the words that substitute for or refer to a noun  
    • Antecedent: the words that a pronoun substitute for or refer
  28. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 
    Indefinite Pronoun (Singular )
    Ending in -one, -body and -things must be refereed to by singular pronouns: he, she, its; his, her, its
  29. Use who and whom to refer to
    people
  30. Use that and which to refer to
    everything else
  31. When to Use "Who" vs. "Whom"
    • who = subject preforming the action 
    • whom = object reicing the action
  32. Has and Have
    Has is only for he, she and It
  33. Was and Were
    • I was 
    • You were 
    • he/she/it was

    • we were 
    • you were 
    • they were

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