Bio 2230-Chapter 11
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what did Gregor Mendel accomplish?
he was the first to elucidate how genes are transmitted from parent to offspring
what are hereditary traits?
characteristics of an individual that are under the control of genes
what is genotype?
genetic make up of an organism (inherited from parents)
what is phenotype? How is it produced?
- observable characteristics
- produced by the interaction between its genotype and the environment
why did Mendel use peas to experiment with? (3)
- easy to grow
- bears flower and fruit in same year
- reproduce by self-fertilization
what is self-fertilization?
pollen from stamens is transferred to pistil of SAME plant
what is cross-fertilization?
fusion of gametes fro DIFFERENT individuals
what is true-breeding?
trait remains unchanging from parent to offspring for many generations (homozygous for a trait)
what is Mendel's first law?
- principle of segregation
- two members of a gene pair (alleles) separate from each other during gamete formation
what is Mendel's second law?
- principle of independent assortment
- genes located on different chromosomes assort independently of one another
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