Ethnic politics Exam 1
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Chandra: subset of identity categories determined by descent based attributes: impersonal, section of a country, sibling eligibility. kim is a social category in which members possess some attributes beived to be related to decent, which are shared more closely with fellow members than with those in a different category. This is significant because it can affect how you see your self and other and how others perceive you. This also divides society into groups that share similar characteristics.
is an ever moving fluid group identity. It is a variable or an event in which categories of people are brought together to form a group. This is significant because it thus implies that group making is a social and cultural project to increase groupness which can be driven by ethnopolitical entrepreneurs who have political aims. These people can bring together categories of people to create a perceived issue in which they can can political power from.
ehno-linguistic fractionalization is used to measure ethnic fractionalization. it aims to measure the like hood that 2 random people will be from different ethnic groups. The problem with this is that it assumes that the degree of ethnic fractionalization is fixed (endogeneity problem), thus ignoring constructivist ideas who see groups changing overtime. everybody uses it because its easy and everyone else uses it.
in a polyethnic group where there is a group hierarchy often based on competition and power over resources. significance is that this can create a dominant language and culture, which informs ethnic boundaries, shapes opportunity structures and sometimes the governments policies and thus can lead to violence between groups.
a polyethnic society where there is (generally positive or non outvertly) interaction between groups. The implication of this theory is that increased contact between individuals belonging to antagonistic groups, will undermine stereotypes they have of one another and that this will improve intergroup relations. This happens at the individual level with the changes in beliefs or ideals. By this not happening at the group level, this means groups are not important. Significance: group is a social construct and that conflict is incorrect and explains enthropolitical entrepreneurs.
in a polyethnic society were there generally negative is interaction between groups in diversese settings because there is generally a competition over scarce resources along group line. This increases and reenforces repetitively the salience existing ethnic differences which can lead to conflict and tension between groups.
Intermarriage is the marriage btw two people of different ethnic, class, racial or other idenitity boundaries. If there is limited intermarriage between groups then one can determain that the ethnic, or identity boundary is very rigid which can imply tensions between groups. how ever in the case of brazil inter marriage was encouraged to whiten the population and thus the “color” or race boundaries blurred and there is a reduction in groupness.
the intersection of multiple subordinated group identities who have different and conflicting political agendas. Rarely do these groups consider the interetions of multiple groups and creates a solution that would help those who live at this interesection. An example of this is women of color who have been further marginalized by the feminist and antiracist agendas.
- that ethnicity is a subjective belief in common decent regardless of objective blood relation. under this category there is modernists and instrumentalists. the latter believing that group attachments result form intentional act of social actors or ethnopolitical entrepreneurs. Modernists see it as a purely modern invention. This is significant because changes our modern outlook and takes into account social constructs and political usage.
- Chandra argues with her idea of groupies. (Brubaker)
ethnicity is a natural phenomenon in which modern ethnic groups have roots extending into the past. existing at all times in human history. ethnic groups defined by kinship and bloodlines. PROB: no time stop. essintialist: ethnic groups are historical but also naturally occurring. this gave rise to the eugenics movement (nazi idea). you can’t change stuff about yourself. Historical: ethnic groups are historical entities defined by cultural signs that are extensions of kinship units. manifested in people interacting. This was the starting point for research in the ethnicity and is the root for “decent based” theories. IT assumes that based on blood ethnicity is a fixed entity and doesn’t change.
voting for legislation that helps the group they repersent. like women voting for pro-women policies. This is significant because it looks at policies that people introduce and how they voted. (e.g the number of women in office that vote against women issues). This is not yet symbolic representation in which the elected official helps the group they repersent feel like they are part of the process, be inspired, engaged, empowered.
person in office looks like the group they are representing. a count of representatives based on descriptive feature. purely on count. People in office have the same descriptive characteristics as their constituencies. This is significant because it allows people to actually see/know how diverse their representative body is based on outward appearances (e.g women, black). Problem is that people may vote for the person based on looks, not on their actual policy or politics. Thus they many not really repersent the constituencies they look like or vote for policies that help them.
individualists who look to benefit from creating strong ethnic groupism. They do this by bringing together categories of people designed to to stir, summon, justify, mobilize and energize. they live off and well as for ethnicity. may not be part of the “ethnicity” or group. Usually want something. Ethnopolitical entrepreneurs matter because they essentially create causes and conflicts where they may not have existed previously.
is created to remedy underrepersentation of certain groups (mainly used for gender) were the group tens to crosscut political party lines. there group ID does not effect the way they vote. would undermine a minorities groups who seek political organization. Quotas are important because they provide a means of assimilation and integration into already existing political institutions.They are temporary and callapse the group into the rest of the political society. to put the group out of business as a group.
remedy for under rep of ethnic groups. there is a guaranteed legislative reservation for a particular ethnic group. This is preferred to a quota because it is believed that member of ethnic groups share similar politics and it keeps the “group” together where as quotas would break the group apart. These also may incentivize formation of minority parties. create new electoral incentives. reservation bestow a distinctive stays on the group as a political community. (quotas in peru)
is an official survey (or sample) of basic questions or standard data set that every household is asked of entire population. This generally infloves self identification and tell you about how groups id. but people can see numbers as truth and thus can skew the results to fit a political agenda, to show the truth of their situation.
In Brazil started from the europen settlers idea that people should intermarry to make society whiter and thus have more sway in global politics. This historical ideology has persisted and has created a social heirachy where white is at the top. There for people try to move to being white and this creates an idea in which race or color is a flexible boundary and one can change their ID. this also seeks to eliminate those groups that are not white.
Social Identity Theory:
Social identity theory claims that individuals identify themselves based on social comparisons of other groups value laden attributes and characterists. Social identity theory is important because it focuses on social identity as a way to explain behavior between groups. This theory can also claim that people seek to have a positive identity and people can change groups to find one that fits their identity better.
an ethnic boundary can be a partisan, ideological cleavage, or geographic concentration, which is the effect of historical construction and political manipulation. These boundaries may be physical or imaginary. They give rise to and reinforce in group and out group identification of members. a groups groupness can effect the degree to which these boundaries are clearly defined and uncrossable. This is significant because boundaries can create cultural differences, competition for resources or they can also increase interactions between groups.
Is a ever changing social construct in which members and outside group members believe that the members of a particular group are all similar to each other but also distinct from other groups. The determine these similarities and differences based on either, descent, race, language, culture or physical boundary.
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