History 300 Exam #2
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Where did most Americans live by the end of the 1700s?
By the year 1800, 2/3 of American citizens still lived within 50 miles of the Atlantic Ocean. Travel was slow (horse and carriage travelled at no more than 3 miles an hour)
What was the percentage of people who lived in cities in year 1800?
Only 3% of the people lived in cities. 80% farmed, 94% lived in communities of less than 2500 people. Most were semi-self sufficient (produced their own food and clothes).
What is Thomas Malthus famous for arguing?
- 1798 Thomas Malthus’ “Essay on the Principle of Population”.
- Malthus predicted that any population can grow to the point of outstripping its food supplies. Unless some limits were placed on population growth—he argued—misery would spread. Since Americans were one of the fastest growing populations in the world, this argument raised some fears
What kind of government did Jefferson promote?
Jefferson wanted to cut taxes, reduce size of army, eliminate the national debt, and reduce government personnel. He kept his promises. He clearly favored small government. At his Inaugural Address, he spoke of the “wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from r one another, [and] shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits.”
What was the Louisiana Purchase and when did it take place?
In 1800 France had reacquired the Louisiana Territory from Spain. This disturbed Jefferson since he did not like that the French could threaten American trade on the Mississippi. The French had just lost Haiti to a rebellion organized by former slaves and needed $ for their European wars. So the USA bought the Louisiana Territory (which included much of the mid-West) in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The size of the nation doubled overnight. This was an important part of Jefferson’s idea that expansion was necessary.
Who became president after Jefferson?
James Madison, a Democratic Republican, won the elections of 1808
What are the causes of the war of 1812?
- Eng. vs US
- British harassing American sailors, and the fact that the U.S. expansion into Indian lands scared the British since they wanted a buffer zone between their land in Canada and American possessions. Madison convinced Congress to go to war (Federalists vs. war, New England and middle states vs. while South and West pro-war).
Was the U.S. Army successful in conquering Canada?
Tecumseh immediately joined the English side vs. the U.S. An American attack vs. Canada was defeated by the British and Indian alliance. American Indians along with the British took over Detroit. The Americans won at Lake Erie. William Henry Harrison retook Detroit and beat English and Indians at the battle of the Thames. The British attacked Washington and burned it in 1814. It is during this conflict that the American national anthem was written. The end of war came in 1814 with the Treaty of Ghent (Belgium): English abandon their Indian allies. Neither side won. Last war between USA and England.
Who won the presidential elections in 1816 and 1820?
James Monroe won the elections in 1816 and 1820. Even though this was a triumph for Democratic Republicans, Monroe had accepted many federalist ideas. Monroe was successful at building bipartisan support. He gave John Quincy Adams, a Federalist and the son of the former president, the job of secretary of state. He also supported a Federalist economic plan: creation of national bank, tax on imported goods to protect American goods, national road system (all ideas that require bigger government).
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
Monroe wanted European powers to respect the independence of free New World Nations. Any European power attacking any independent American country would bring the U.S. to war. In exchange for this, the U.S. said it would not interfere in Europe and in the remaining New World colonies.
What was the Missouri Crisis and when did it take place? How was it resolved?
With westward movement, much debate began on whether slavery would expand as well. Most Northern states did not want to, while Southern states did. In 1819, Missouri asked to be recognized as a state and also wanted legal slavery. At this time, the Senate was split with 11 states each for slavery and non-slavery, so these latter states didn’t want other slave states. Southerners vs. the idea that Congress could prevent the expansion of slavery because states have jurisdiction over property issues. Compromise: Maine which had been part of Massachusetts becomes free state and Missouri admitted as a slave state.
Why did political opponents accuse Andrew Jackson of being a murderer?
Jackson’s party called Democrats (populists) vs. Republicans (John Quincy Adams who was accused of elitism). Jackson accused of being a white trash murderer (killed several people in duels). Jackson gets John Calhoun as vice (who had been vicepresident to Adams). Jackson wins easy
How did the presidency of Andrew Jackson affect the economy?
reelection in 1832. Conflict between Congress (pro-bank) and Jackson. Jackson took out all the government $ from the national bank and put it in state banks. As a result, the bank director Nicholas Biddle demanded repayment of all commercial loans—something which caused a recession in 1833. Merchants, Southern planters and businessmen all mad at Jackson so they created a new party: the Whigs.After the collapse of the Bank, wild speculations and economic recession struck again (Panic of 1837). Unemployment rose considerably. Big demonstrations turned violent in NY. The economy remained bad until 1843. Government did nothing (no public works like FDR, no bailout of banks, no unemployment payments).Van Buren can’t fix Jackson’s economic legacy.-1840
What were some of the main differences between Democrats and Whigs in the 1840s?
Democrats were popular in the West and in the South, they were for state rights, vs. Indians, for expansion, and wanted small government interference. Whigs wanted a strong state, they were popular in the North and among rich Southern planters
What were the main Southern crops that relied on slave labor?
The Southern economy depended on slavery for crops like tobacco, rice, indigo and particularly cotton. In 1793, the invention of the cotton gin made it easier to separate the seeds from the fiber making cotton a more profitable crop. This led to a rise in slavery. Much cotton was exported to England. The problem wasthat cotton quickly exhausted the soil so there was always need for more land (important factor in Indian Removal).
What was the Removal Policy?
people wanted to push Indians westward to get their lands without genocide and wouldn’tnot have to live with Natives
Who were the 5 “Civilized” tribes?
- Cherokee, Choctow, Chicasaw, Creek and Seminole
- tried very hard to assimilate in an effort to convince white Americans to let them keep their lands. Cherokee wrote language and constitution and whitewashed theyselves
What was the Trail of Tears and when did it take place?
In 1835, some Cherokee signed the Treaty of NewEchota and agreed to voluntarily relocate to Oklahoma. Another faction of the Cherokee refused to go, but in 1838 during what came to be known as the “Trail of Tears” they were forcibly removed from their lands to Oklahoma. Thousands of them died during this forced march. This started a small Cherokee civil war since the late arrivals blamed those who had signed the treaty and considered them traitors. After violence subsided, enduring tensions between those willing to work with the U.S. government and the more traditional Cherokees remained.-The Seminole:
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