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Chemically, what is an enzyme?
An substance that speeds up chemical reactions without being used up in the reaction.
What is the function of enzymes?
- 1. Increase rate of reaction.
- 2. Act specifically with only one reactant to produce products.
What is the difference between an apoenzyme and a holoenzyme?
- Apoenzyme is a protein component of an enzyme to which the coenzyme attaches to form an active enzyme.
- Holoenzyme is an active complex enzyme consisting of an apoenzyme and coenzyme.
What is the difference between a coenzyme and a cofactor?
- Coenzyme are organic molecules that are required by certain enzymes to carry out catalysis.
- Cofactors are often classified as inorganic substances that are required for or increase the rate of catalysts.
What does it mean for an enzyme to be substrate specific?
Enzymes to be substrate specific means to be particular in the kind of proteins they can be catalyze.
Describe the mechanism by which enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions
An enzyme increases the rate of the reaction by lowering the activation energy needed for the reaction. The secret is that enzymes weaken the bonds in the substrate so that products are formed much faster.
Describe the factors that affect enzyme activity?
Temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and inhibitors.
What happens to an enzyme when it is denatured?
If altered pH and or temperature alter the specific 3 dimensional shape of an enzyme.
Define the units that are used to measure the concentration of enzymes.
One U is defined as the amount of the enzyme that produces a certain amount of enzymatic activity, which is the amount of that catalyzes the conversion of micro mote of substrate per minute. The conditions has to be specific and the pH value and substrate concentration that yield the maximal substrate conversion rate.
How do enzymes control the activity of cells?
Cells regulate enzyme activity through two methods: allosteric inhibition and competitive inhibition. Competitive inhibition is when something enters the active site so that the true substrate cannot enter into the enzyme to have a reaction.