History Test #2 ya cocksucker

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Mburkett
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284811
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History Test #2 ya cocksucker
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2014-10-03 19:24:29
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cocksucker
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Matty fucking hates you
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  1. When did the U.S. pass laws vs. the importation of slaves?
    England outlawed the slave trade in 1807 and the U.S. in 1808 (no more importation of slaves, but slavery still legal). By 1820, all Northern states had abolished slavery.
  2. How did Southern slave owners justify slavery in comparison to wage labor?
    Southerners argued that slavery was good because they fed slaves from birth to death, whereas wage labor only paid people while they worked and forgot about them when they were no longer productive. Also, they argued the life of slaves was good since they did not have the responsibilities shouldered by the slave owners.
  3. What aspects of Christianity did slave owners want the slaves to learn? What aspects of Christianity did many slaves emphasize instead?
    Slave owners liked for Christianity to be taught to slaves only as long as it emphasized obedience, consolation and reward in the next life. African Americans, instead, liked the aspects of Christianity that emphasized freedom and equality. They also often mixed it with African traditions.
  4. Why did the Industrial Revolution bring more women and kids into wage labor?
    • Most workers were women and kids since they would cost less.
    • People working for wages were 12% of the population in 1800 and 40% by 1860 (mostly in the North.) Some women got to work outside of the house, particularly in textile industries (more independence for young women). Women spearheaded some of first labor unions in US and in some states won laws limiting the workday to a maximum of 10 hours
  5. How did the relationship between work and leisure change with the Industrial Revolution?
    In pre-industrial times, work and leisure were mixed because work took place at home. Now, they became separate since people would work hard in the factories but once returning at home a worker would have free time (less flexibility during work time). Typical favorite leisure places were taverns and spectator sports (horse racing, boxing, and baseball which starts in the 1850s), plays, circus.
  6. How common or not was abortion in the 1850s?
    Birth control methods: abstinence or infrequent sex, withdrawal, and sex during infertile period (not very reliable). Medical manuals advised couples to stop having sex after they had enough children! Surgical abortion was also used by many middle class women. 25% of pregnancies ended in abortion in the 1850s.By 1860, 20 states outlawed abortion, so illegal abortion became routine (any time you make something illegal, you end up creating a black market.) Medical manuals suggested women had no sex drive and should help husbands limit sex (also masturbation was considered the root to insanity...)
  7. What were cities like in the early 1800s?
    Early 1800s cities lacked water supplies, sewer, and garbage collection. Outdoor toilets often contaminated the water supply plus garbage was thrown out the door so that pigs could take it away. Cities were centers of disease so many epidemics. Some rich neighborhoods began to provide garbage collection and indoor plumbing, but not available in poor areas.Much violence in cities. Concern about violence led to the creation of a police force (in NY in 1845). Some didn’t want it because they feared for personal liberty but the middle class was too concern about the danger posed by poor criminals.
  8. How did immigration change in the 1840s and 1850s?
    from 20 thousand immigrants in 1831 to 430 thousand in 1854. During this period mostly from Ireland (English colonization and potato famine of 1845-50) and Germany (poverty but not as much as Irish). New immigrants were non-English speaking (Irish used Gaelic) plus all Irish and many Germans were Catholic.Discrimination against them so ethnic ghettos (they returned the hatred Protestants felt for them).Residential patterns in cities began to reflect class issues.Many free African Americans lived in cities (particularly in the North) but they regularly faced segregation and discrimination. Competition between Irish and African Americans for poor jobs.
  9. How did most labor unions treat African Americans and women?
    Creation of labor unions as class conflicts became more intense between workers and richer capitalists. Unions demanded for a workday no longer than 10 hours day. Employers argued union requests were just a bunch of whining. If they worked hard enough—the employers argued—workers could succeed and climb the social ladder. Most unions excluded women, African Americans, etc.
  10. What were political machines and how did they work?
    Ethnic ghettos organized to support a certain candidate who in exchange was to provide jobs and favors if he won: very mafia style. It was a way for poor people to get jobs if they supported the right politician. Irish proDems, Germans pro GOP.
  11. What was the “dark side” of the Reform Movements?
    Belief in goodness of human nature that just needs to be reformed. Dark side was moralistic dogmatism, reformers are sure they are right and so it’s ok to impose one’s standards on everyone: impose morality by law. They believed that everyone needs to be reformed whether they want it or not. Many people were upset with the reformers’ arrogance.
  12. What were William Lloyd Garrison’s political beliefs and how was he viewed by the state of Georgia?
    Some whites like William Lloyd Garrison were also vs. slavery: they tried to stir moral indignation vs. slavery, and wanted full equality for blacks. Garrison was also for pacifism and women’s rights. Georgia offered $ to anyone who would kidnap Garrison in order to bring him to trial in Georgia for inciting to rebellion
  13. What were the causes of the conflict between the Anglo residents of Texas and the Mexican government?
    white settlers wanted to immigrate there, the Mexican government let them. But after a while they became concerned at the American continuing to pour in great numbers and not making much effort to assimilate into Mexican culture. In 1828 Conservatives gained power in Mexico and began restricting immigration, raising more taxes and outlawing slavery. Anglo settlers inTexas rebelled and declared independence. In 1835 war: General and President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna vs. Anglos at the Alamo (in 1836). At the next battle, the Texans won. Santa Anna signed a treaty granting the separate republic of Texas. The Mexican Congress refused to recognize the treaty. So it remained disputed land. The American Congress refused to admit Texas into the Union (opposition to another slave state, and many did not support the notion of a war with Mexico). President Tyler proposed to annex Texas in 1844 but his own party refused and expelled him from party.
  14. Mexican-American war of 1846-48
    • At the elections of 1844, a Democrat, James Polk, won. Before leaving office, Tyler managed to get annexation of Texas passed in 1845. Mexico broke diplomatic relations with USA. When the U.S. government acknowledged Texas’ independence, it caused diplomatic conflict with Mexico which eventually led to the Mexican-American war of 1846-48.
    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848: Mexico was forced to give to the U.S. all of its Northern territories (the modern day SW). The American nation grew by 70% (by 1850 from 5.3 million people in 1800 to 23, from 16 to 31 states, tripled in size) Polk wanted to take over of Mexico but he encountered opposition because many people did not want to turn Mexicans into American citizens (for racist reasons, they wanted as much land as possible with as few Mexicans as possible).
  15. What is the doctrine of Manifest Destiny?
    • 19th century, Manifest Destiny was the widely held belief in the United States that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent
    • The special virtues of the American people and their institutions;America's mission to redeem and remake the west in the image of agrarian America;An irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential duty.
  16. Why was President Polk criticized for his handling of the war?
    1846 Bear Flag Revolt: whites in CA declared independence from Mexico.Both nations put troops at the border, and soon after the war began. Many questioned Polk saying he misled Congress by pretending that Mexico started aggressive war vs. USA (1st time that a President is accused of lying to start war: first of many times i.e. Vietnam, Iraq, etc.) 13 thousand Americans and 50 thousand Mexicans die. Southerners pro-war, Whigs vs.
  17. What is the book Civil Disobedience about?
    Henry David Thoreau was firmly against war, so he refused to pay taxes that would support it. He wrote “Civil Disobedience” which attracted little attention at the time, but it later had a big impact on the world’s history, since both Gandhi and MLK used it as inspiration for their movements
  18. Which territories did the U.S. acquire through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848: Mexico was forced to give to the U.S. all of its Northern territories (the modern day SW). The American nation grew by 70% (by 1850 from 5.3 million people in 1800 to 23, from 16 to 31 states, tripled in size) Polk wanted to take over of Mexico but he encountered opposition because many people did not want to turn Mexicans into American citizens (for racist reasons, they wanted as much land as possible with as few Mexicans as possible).
  19. Why did the U.S. not take over all of Mexico?
    Polk wanted to take over of Mexico but he encountered opposition because many people did not want to turn Mexicans into American citizens (for racist reasons, they wanted as much land as possible with as few Mexicans as possible).
  20. What happened in California in 1849?
    Gold rush in 1849. Several CA towns paid citizens to go on Indian “hunts” (you would be paid for every Indian scalp you brought back to town). There was literally a price on the head of every Indian man, woman and child in CA. Sometimes, miners found it more profitable to sell Native into slavery (women into the brothels and kids to ranches) than killing them. This is one of the most obvious cases of genocide to have taken place during the colonization of the Americas. Eventually, once the initial genocidal effort was over, the survivors among CA Indian tribes were placed on very small reservations.
  21. What was the Land Act of 1851 about?
    commission to establish who had title to the land when there were disputes. It was biased toward whites. When they went to court, even if Mexicans won a case, they would often lose the land anyway because of the high court fees. Violence was also used to force them to sell for cheap.
  22. When and why did most Chinese immigrants come to the U.S.?
    The Gold Rush attracted immigrants from southeastern China looking for economic opportunities. In CA, whenever they found gold, they would get kicked out by whites, so they began doing jobs white males didn’t want: cooking, laundry, domestic servants, railroad workers, fishing villages on the coast, as seasonal workers in farms. Most immigrants were men (since they expected to make some $ and then go back to China) and few women. The Chinese, being non-white, non-Christian were often discriminated. Religiously, they practiced a mix of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism.
  23. Why were chinese immigrants discriminated (multiple reasons)?
    they were not allowed to vote and become citizens so they were ignored by politicians, and lived in poor ghettos. Poor whites were scared of job competition so they wanted to restrict Chinese immigration, but businesses wanted them as cheap labor. The 1868 Burlingame Treaty allowed for unrestricted immigration of Chinese people to work on the railroads. The Pacific Railroad replaced expensive whites for cheap Chinese people. This led to hatred of the Chinese by poor whites. Too much pressure eventually led to the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which outlawed Chinese immigration.
  24. What was the Burlingame Treaty, what industry pushed for its passing and why?
    The 1868 Burlingame Treaty allowed for unrestricted immigration of Chinese people to work on the railroads. The Pacific Railroad replaced expensive whites for cheap Chinese people. This led to hatred of the Chinese by poor whites.
  25. What was the Chinese Exclusion Act and when did it pass?
    The 1868 Burlingame Treaty allowed for unrestricted immigration of Chinese people to work on the railroads. The Pacific Railroad replaced expensive whites for cheap Chinese people. This led to hatred of the Chinese by poor whites. Too much pressure eventually led to the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which outlawed Chinese immigration.
  26. How did political parties respond to the proposal to ban slavery in all the lands acquired from Mexico?
    1846 a Democrat, David Wilmot (from North), proposed banning slavery in all the lands acquired from Mexico (he did this to take votes away from the Liberty Party, which run almost entirely on anti-slavery platform). Northern Dems and Whigs vote for it, Southern Dems and Whigs against it (division by geography, not by party). Breakdown of national party system. Religious denominations also divided on this. Split between Northern and Southern Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists (Southern Baptist Convention still split).Southern Baptists Convention split from the rest in 1845 in protest vs. anti-slavery position of other Baptists.
  27. Compromise: Will Mexican lands be free or slave states?
    Compromise of 1850: Fillmore became president and brokered a compromise. CA admitted as a free state, but other former Mexican possessions to be decided by popular vote. 1850 Fugitive Slave Law: penalties on anyone not cooperating with the return of slaves or on anyone helping runaway slaves. Many in the North were mad with the Fugitive Slave Law. Much violence in Kansas between abolitionists and pro-slavery groups.
  28. What was the Dred Scott decision (1857)?
    Scott was a slave whose “owner” relocated to a free state during the 1830s. Scott had a wife and daughter. Years later they returned to Missouri. Scott sued in 1846 on the grounds that residence in free lands had made them free. The case took 11 years to reach the Supreme Court: Supreme Court declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (government has no right to interfere with the movement of property across land, plus only citizens can sue in federal courts and blacks are not). Supreme Court split along South/ North lines. Republicans, including Lincoln, very upset with the decision.
  29. Who won the 1860 election?
    Republicans nominated Lincoln. The Republican party did not campaign in the South, one of the Democrats did not campaign in the North. Lincoln won (despite the fact that his name was not even on the ballots in the South).S. Carolina immediately declared secession from the Union (for fear of being dominated by abolitionists).
  30. Who was Jefferson Davis?
    In the South, people think that the North will accept secession. In 1861, they create the Confederate States of America (its constitution was pro-state rights, and pro slavery). Jefferson Davis, a moderate, became its president.
  31. Why were many peoples in Northern states more willing to abolish slavery than most peoples in the South?
    Many in the North opposed slavery on moral grounds. But slavery not as important to the North’s economy (more industrial) as it is in the South (cotton plantations, etc.) Some Northern states start abolishing slavery at end 1700s, after Revolution. After 1807 no more importation of slaves.
  32. Why is it not correct to say that Lincoln began the Civil War in order to abolish slavery?
    Tension between power of federal government and power of states is the cause. Slavery was part of the story, but it’s only the specific spark. The bigger issue is the unity of the nation. As President Abraham Lincoln declared in 1861 “I have no purpose to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so”. And once the Civil War had begun he wrote, “My object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy Slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it”.
  33. What incident led to the beginning of the Civil War?
    • S. Carolina immediately declared secession from the Union (for fear of being dominated by abolitionists). Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas joined S. Carolina.
    • Fort Sumter in S. Carolina was located on an island at the entrance of the Charleston harbor. In 1861 it was still in the hands of the Union, so it was seen as a threat to the harbor. Lincoln sent soldiers to resupply the fort. In April, Davis ordered troops to take over the fort before supplies arrived. This was the first fight of the Civil War: the South was successful and took over the North.
  34. When did the Civil War begin and end?
    • 1861 first major battle at Bull Run in Virginia. The North lost badly. People realized this conflict will not be quick or painless. By the end of it all, the Civil War will kill 620,000 soldiers (25% of those who fought died) more than WWI and II combined.
    • On July 1-3 1863 battle Gettysburg in Pennsylvania: huge massacre 28000 casualties from the South, 23000 from the North. The North wins the battle. More Northern military victories until Southern surrender in 1865.
  35. Did all the pro-slavery states join the Confederacy?
    Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri were slave states but did not join.
  36. Approximately, how many soldiers die in the Civil War?
    By the end of it all, the Civil War will kill 620,000 soldiers (25% of those who fought died) more than WWI and II combined.
  37. Why did Lincoln oppose the freeing of slaves in Missouri?
    I have never sought to apply these principles to the old States for the purpose of abolishing slavery in those States. It is nothing but a miserable perversion of what I have said, to assume that I have declared Missouri, or any other slave State shall emancipate her slaves. I have proposed no such thing.
  38. What kind of internal contradiction handicapped the Confederacy during the Civil War?
    The belief in states’ rights vs. central government was difficult to reconcile with the realities of the Civil War since, in order to fight effectively, the war required a strong central government. Davis needed to raise $ for the war but the states opposed raising taxes. After a while, less people volunteered so the Confederacy began a draft, but the rich could buy their way out. This made many poor whites mad.
  39. Why did the draft in the south anger some poor white people?
    Confederacy began a draft, but the rich could buy their way out. This made many poor whites mad.
  40. What was the Anaconda Plan?
    Anaconda Plan (naval blockade at sea and on Mississipi) to force them to give up. At first unsuccessful because the navy was too small, but in time it became more efficient and seized most Southern ships. Also, this led to the conquest of the islands of N. and S. Carolina.
  41. When was the Emancipation Proclamation issued?
    an. 1 1863 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation: it freed slaves in rebellious states, but not in border states and not in those Southern lands already conquered by the Union (weak compromise with conservatives). Abolitionists pushed for stronger stance so this eventually led to the passing of the 13th Amendment (complete ban on slavery) in 1865.
  42. What are some reasons for the high death rate among soldiers during the Civil War?
    better technology (modern rifles vs. old muskets), plus typical military strategies relied on overwhelming the enemy with a mass charge which meant many would be killedbut hopefully enough soldiers would survive to crush the enemy line. Also, since medical knowledge was not very well developed, many died from infections from little wounds.Not being very well equipped to deal with masses of prisoners also led to tragedies.
  43. What were conditions like at Andersonville?
    Andersonville in Georgia: captured Union soldiers died because of overcrowding (more than a 100 a day died for malnutrition and exposure). Despite some initial objections, women were admitted as nurses in the army.
  44. Why was the battle of Gettysburg so famous and when did it take place?
    On July 1-3 1863 battle Gettysburg in Pennsylvania: huge massacre 28000 casualties from the South, 23000 from the North. The North wins the battle. More Northern military victories until Southern surrender in 1865.
  45. When, why and by whom was Lincoln killed?
    On April 14 1865 Lincoln goes to the theater in Washington, where he is shot to death by John Wilkes Booth, a Southern sympathizer.
  46. 13 amendment content and date of passage
    13th Amendment: emancipation for all in 1865
  47. 14th Amendment
    14th Amendment in 1866: citizenship for blackz
  48. 15th amendment
    15th in 1869: right to vote for afro american
  49. Why was Andrew Johnson so criticized in the Senate?
    Lincoln’s successor was Andrew Johnson (pro-slavery and white supremacist, but had remained loyal to the Union). He pushed to pardon and help the South.Tension between Senate wanting reforms and President putting obstacles. In 1868 Senate tries to impeach Johnson for breaking law regarding appointee (couldn’t fire them without senate approval): just an excuse to get rid of him for political differences. One vote short of success.
  50. Who won the 1868 election?
    Republicans nomiate war hero Ulysses Grant. Grant wins and he wins again in 1872.

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