Cardiac Management

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Author:
readyreg29
ID:
284812
Filename:
Cardiac Management
Updated:
2014-10-10 20:03:00
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Cardiac Management
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Cardiac Management
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Cardiac Management
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  1. A narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart
    Coronary artery disease
  2. Risk factors of Coronary artery disease
    • High blood cholesterol
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes 
    • Overweight 
    • Smoking
    • Lack of physical activity
    • Diet
    • Stress
  3. Risk factors affecting the venous return
    • Heart contractions
    • Breathing
    • Gravity
  4. Significance of Starling's Law
    • Heart wall determines force of contraction
    • Further stretched greater the recoil
  5. Risk factors for heart disease
    • Hypertension
    • High cholesterol
    • Smoking 
    • Diet
    • Obesity
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Hormone replacement
    • Stress
  6. The difference between the heart rate and the palpable pulse
    Pulse defiit
  7. A pulse that alternates between strong and week beats, characteristic of left ventricular systolic damage
    Pulse alternans
  8. Focused history that relates to cardiovascular compromise
    • Cardiac medications
    • Past MI
    • Past procedures
    • Pacemaker / defibrillator
    • Heart failure
    • Hypertension
    • Diabetes
    • Lung disease
  9. Signs for rapid intervention for Pt. in cardiovascular compromise
    • Apprehension
    • Diaphoresis
    • Dyspnea
    • Nausea / Vomiting
    • Impending doom
  10. Indications for transcutaneous pacing
    • Bradycardia
    • (Mobitz type II second-degree block or third-degree AV block)
  11. Possible complications of pacing
    • Severe hypothermia
    • Confused pt. (discomfort will increase the agitation)
  12. Causes and implications of pacemaker failure
    • Battery depletion
    • Loose or broken wire 
    • Electromagnetic interference 
    • Electronic circuit failure
    • Electrolyte abnormality (high potassium)
  13. Cardiovascular disease
    Common chief complaints
    • Chest pain / discomfort (incl. shoulder, arm, neck, jaw pain)
    • Dyspnea
    • Syncope
    • Palpitations
  14. Myocardial infarction
    Common chief complaints
    • Pulmonary embolus
    • Pleurisy (sharp chest pain)
    • Reflux esophagitis
  15. Common causes of dyspnea unrelated to heart disease
    • COPD
    • Respiratory infection
    • Pulmonary embolus
    • Asthma
  16. Anticipated clinical problems with chest pain
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Left ventricle failure w/ Pulmonary edema
    • Right ventricular failure
    • Cardiogenic shock
    • Cardiac tamponade
    • Aortic aneurysms
  17. Conditions that may mimic signs and symptoms of coronary artery disease and angina pectoris
    • Gastroesophageal
    • Pulmonary
    • Musculoskeletal
  18. Gastroesophageal causes of chest pain
    • Reflux esophagitis
    • Esophageal spasm
    • Esophageal perforation
    • Gastritis
    • Peptic ulcer
  19. Pulmonary causes of chest pain
    • Pneumothorax
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Bronchitis
  20. The paramedic responsibilities associated with management of the patient with angina pectoris
    Chest pain protocol
  21. Anticipated life-threatening clinical problems of chest pain
    • MI
    • Cardiac tamponade 
    • Dysrhythmia
    • Cardiogenic shock
    • CHF
    • ACS
  22. Epidemiology, morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction
    • Elderly
    • Smokers
    • Diabetes
    • Obesity
    • Drug users
  23. Mechanisms by which an Ml may be produced by traumatic event
    • Trauma 
    • Blood loss
  24. Mechanisms by which an Ml may be produced by non-traumatic event
    • Past medical
    • ACS
    • Diabetes
    • Drug usage
    • Genetic (abnormalities)
  25. Primary hemodynamic changes produced in myocardial infarction
    • Low BP
    • Difficulty breathing
    • ALOC
    • Decreased pre & after load
    • Dysrhythmias
    • Death
  26. Anticipated clinical presentation of a patient with a suspected acute myocardial infarction
    • Cardiac history
    • STEMI
    • BP / Pulse abnormalities
    • Respiratory compromise 
    • Pulmonary compromise
    • Present illness
  27. The difference in characteristics of suspected angina pectoris & MI
    • Angina is exertion  (relief by rest)
    • MI = blockage or damage (death of tissue)
  28. The most common complications of AMI
    • Damaged myocardium
    • Dysrhythmias
    • Decreased pre-load (R) pedal edema
    • Decreased after-load (L) CHF
  29. Reperfusion of MI as it pertains to the
    "window of opportunity"
    • The first 3 hours
    • "time is tissue"
  30. Measures to prevent or minimize complications in suspected MI
    • Chest pain protocol
    • M.O.N.A

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