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What is Biology?
The study of life or the study of living organisms
Bio=life logos=study of
What is the ultimate goal for studying Science?
To understand the universe.
Biology as a science seeks to understand that part of the universe that deals with living things
What are the three reasons for studying science?
1. To increase logic skills
2. To provide skepticism
3. To be literate in today's technological world
What are the seven characteristics of living things?
1. All living things are made up of 1 or more cells
2. Respond to stimuli
3. Show homeostasis
4. Acquire and use energy and materials, metabolism
6. Reproduce, using DNA (a genetic molecule)
7. Are products of evolution
What are the four major themes in biology?
2. That all phenomena in biology confirm to or follow the laws of chemistry and physics
3. All living things (organisms) are composed of one or more cells, this makes up part of the cell theory
What is natural selection?
The mechanism that is the principal driving force
What is the Cell Theory?
That living organisms are composed of one or more cells
What is DNA?
The genetic molecule that controls life, it is found in the chromosomes of the cell
What are the three assumptions or Principles underlying scientific Inquiry?
1. Natural causality
2. Common perception
3. Uniformity in time and space
What are the steps of the scientific method?
1. Make an observation
2. Develop a hypothesis
3. Test the hypothesis
4. Draw Conclusion
5. Report your findings
What is a falsifiable hypothesis?
A hypothesis that can be proven false by an experiment if it is false
What is an unfalsifiable hypothesis?
An explanation of something that cannot be proven
What is a variable?
The variable that is varied or changed between the control group of the experimental group
What are the 11 levels of organization and subdivisions of biology?
- 1. Atoms and Molecules
- 4. Tissues
- 5. Organs
- 6. Organ (body) systems
- 7. Multicellular organisms
- 8. Populations
- 9. Communities
- 10. Ecosystems
- 11. Biospheres
What are the three main subdivisions of biology?
- 1. zoology- scientific study of animals
- 2. botany- study of plants
- 3. microbiology- the scientific study of microscopic organisms (bacteria, protozoans)
What is spontaneous generation?
An idea that says that living things can arise from non living matter, was a commonly held belief for many centuries
What did Miller and Urey do?
Created an experiment in which stimulated what the atmosphere of the Earth (billions of years ago) might have been like and circulated the gases through a high energy system. Proved spontaneous generation was possible in ancient oceans
What are the 2 main conditions on early earth conductive to the origin of life?
1. Early atmosphere quite different from today's, with lots of molecules needed to make organic life (no oxygen gas)
2. Lots of high energy sources
what are the three main types of microscopes?
- 1.Stereo dissecting molecules
- 2. Compound Light microscope
- 3.Electron microscope
What is the stereo dissecting microscope used for?
Used to view larger specimens and for dissecting small objects
only magnifies about 30x bigger
What is the compound light microscope used for?
general lab use, used to study cells
magnifies from about 40 to 2,000x
What is the electron microscope used for?
used to view detailed structures inside cells
magnifies to 100,000 or more times
What are the three domains of living organisms?
- 1. Bacteria
- 2. Archaea
- 3. Eukarya
What are the 2 basic types of cells?
- 1. Prokaryotic- no nucleus (bacteria, e.coli)
- 2. Eukaryotic-with a nucleus (animals)
What is taxonomy?
The science of naming and classifying organisms
What is Carlos Linnaeus known as?
"Father of taxonomy" developed the binomial nomenclature
What are the 8 classification groups?
- 1. Species
- 2. Genus
- 3. Family
- 4. Order
- 5. Class
- 6. Phylum (division)
- 7. Kingdom
- 8. Domain
What are the 4 ways prokaryotes are important in nature?
- 1. Food source for other organisms
- 2. Decomposers and recyclers
- 3. Provide nitrogen for plants
- 4. Cause disease and protect from diseases
What are the 4 kingdoms of the domain Eukarya?
- 1. Protista
- 2. Fungi
- 3. Plantae
- 4. Animalia
What are the characteristics of the Protista kingdom?
- organelles (complex structure within the cell)
- nucleated (cell has a nucleus)
Ex: paramecium, amoeba
What are the characteristics of the Fungi kingdom?
- heterotrophic (can't make their own food)
- has cell walls
What are the characteristics of the plantae kingdom?
- has cell walls
- autotrophic- can make their own food
What are the characteristics of the animalia kingdom?
- multicellularno cell walls
What are the 3 importances of Fungi?
- 1. Food sources
- 2. Decomposers and recyclers
- 3. Causes diseases
What is a spore?
primitive reproductive cell that can grow into a new organism
What are lichens?
an organism made up of a fungus and an algae
what is mycorrhizae?
fungi associated with plant roots
What are the 2 groups in the plantae kingdom?
- 1. Multicellular algae (sea weeds)
- 2. Terestrial plants (all other multicellular plants)
What are the 3 types of vascular plants?
- 1. Ferns & allies- reproduce via spores, seedless vascular plants
- 2. Gymnosperms- reproduce via seeds, conifers
- 3. Angiosperms- flowering plants, reproduce via seed
What are invertebrates?
animals without a backbone
What are the 4 types of invertebrates?
- 1. Annelids- the segmented worm
- 2. Arthropods- the joint footed animals, spiders
- 3. Mollusks- shelled animals, snails
- 4. Echinoderms- the spiny-skinned animals, sea stars
What are the 6 main groups of invertebrates?
- 1. Cartilage fish- chondrichthyes, sharks, rays
- 2. Bony fish- osteichtheys, "all the rest of the fish"
- 3. Amphibians- frogs
- 4. Reptiles- alligators
- 5. Birds=aves, penguins
- 6.Mammals-whales, humans
What is bilateral symmetry?
can only be cut straight down the middle once to result in two equal parts
what is the difference between endothermic (warm blooded) vs. ectothermic (cold-blooded)?
endothermic animals can maintain a relatively warm and constant body temperature independent from the environment. While ectothermic are not able to maintan a relatively warm and constant temperature
What is located in the nucleus?
Protons and neutrons
Where are electrons located?
they circle around the nucleus in energy levels
what is atomic number?
the number of protons an atom has
What is a covalent bond?
Atoms share electons
what is an ion?
A charged particle
What is an acid?
A substance which has a ph from 0.0 to less than 7.0, acids are generally sour, and have more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions in them
What is a base?
- A substance which has a ph level greater than 7.0 to 14.0
- bases generally more soapy
- has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions in them
What is organic?
those that contain carbon and hydrogen
What are the 4 importances of water?
- 1. The main component of cells
- 2. It's the chief transport medium in biological systems
- 3. Maintain heat
- 4. An excellent solvent (lots of substances dissolve in it)
What is a polymer?
long chains of repeating subunits
what are carbohydrates?
subunits the saccarides
What are the 3 types of carbohdrates?
- 1. monosaccharides-single one sugar (frutose)
- 2. Disaccharides- two sugars, lactose
- 3. Polysaccharides- many sugars, grains
what are proteins?
- subunits amino acids
- chains of 50 or more amino acids
- ex: hair, nails
What are the importance of nucleotides?
importance in heredity and expression of genes (DNA and RNA), energy source ATP