Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 10

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Author:
MalloryHaggith
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284835
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Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 10
Updated:
2014-10-12 19:26:31
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Electricity
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Science,Electricity
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Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 10
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  1. Electricity
    -a form of energy that results from the interaction of charged particles, such as electrons of protons

    • EXAMPLE: turning on a light or plugging in a toaster
  2. Static charge (Static Electricity)
    -an electric charge that tends to stay on the surface of an object, rather than flowing away quickly

    EXAMPLE: rubbing a balloon on your head and sticking it to a wall

  3. Charging By Friction
    -a process in which objects made from different materials rub against each other, producing a net static charge on each

    EXAMPLE: rubbing your feet across a carpet

  4. Electrostatic Series
    -a list of materials that have been arranged according to their ability to hold on to electrons

  5. Insulator
    -a material in which electrons cannot move easily from one atom to another

    EXAMPLE: glass, rubber, cotton etc

  6. Conductor
    -a material in which electrons can move easily between atoms

    EXAMPLE: metals (copper, steel, mercury, aluminum etc)

  7. Semiconductor
    -a material in which electrons can move fairly well between atoms

    EXAMPLE: non-metals (i.e. silicon)

  8. Ground
    -an object that can supply a very large number of electrons to, or can remove a very large number of electrons from, a charged object, thus neutralizing the object

    EXAMPLE: you can ground many kinds of charged objects by touching them as your fingers conduct electrons

  9. Electroscope
    -a device for detecting the presence of an electric charge

    • EXAMPLE: metal leaf electroscope (Figure 1), pith ball electroscope (Figure 2)

                 FIGURE 1                         FIGURE 2
  10. Charging By Contact
    -generating a charge on a neutral object by touching it with a charged object

    EXAMPLE: when a negatively charged rod comes in contact with a neutral pith ball there is a transfer of electrons causing the pith ball to become negatively charged and leaving the rod still negative or neutral
  11. Laws Of Electric Charges
    -laws that describe how two objects interact electrically when one or both are charged

    • LAWS:
    • 1. Like charges repel
    • 2. Opposite charges attract
    • 3. Charged and neutral objects attract

  12. Electric Field
    -a property of the space around a charged object, where the effect of its charge can be felt by other objects

  13. Induced Charge Separation
    -the movement of electrons in a substance, caused by the electric field of a nearby charged object, without dire contact between the substance and the object

    EXAMPLE: when a negatively charged rod is brought near a neutral pith ball the electric field of the rod is strong enough to have an affect on the pith ball without actually making contact
  14. Ion
    -a charged atom or group of atoms

    NOTE: formed when charge is transferred (atoms gain or loose electrons)
  15. Lightning Rod
    -a metal sphere or point, attached to the highest part of a building and connected to the ground

    NOTE: important in rural areas where the highest buildings are houses and barns

    EXAMPLE: since lightning usually strikes the highest area in an area buildings will have lightning rods on top that is attached to the building and connected to the ground

  16. Electrostatic Precipitator
    -a type of cleaner that removes unwanted particles and liquid droplets from a flow of gas

    EXAMPLE: reduce pollution from smokestacks

    NOTE: invented in 1907 by Frederick Gardner Cottrell an American Physical Chemist, Inventor and Philanthropist

  17. Van De Graaff Generator
    -a device that accumulates very large charges

    EXAMPLE: uses a moving belt to accumulate very high amounts of electrical potential on a hollow metal globe on the top of the stand

    NOTE: invented by Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929, it can accelerate particles to very high speeds and new subatomic particles are formed by this process

  18. Radiation Dosimeter
    -a small device that detects and measures exposure to radiation

    EXAMPLE: worn by astronauts so they are protected from radiation emitted from the sun

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