Last Bit for History 300 test #2

Card Set Information

Author:
Mburkett
ID:
284841
Filename:
Last Bit for History 300 test #2
Updated:
2014-10-04 15:01:38
Tags:
history test
Folders:
history
Description:
yup
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Mburkett on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What methods were used to interfere with the legal rights of African Americans during the Reconstruction period (and in the decades to follow)?
    • segregated facilities 
    • No land redistribution so blacks free but still super-poor
    • Since slavery, whites insisted that blacks act in an obedient manner. Blacks and whites did not shake hands,black did not look in eyes of whites, blacks went to the back door.
    • Hayes (GOP candidate) vs. Tilden (Dems), much fraud and close election, too close to call. In 1877 break tie with agreement: Dems agree to give the election to Hayes in exchange taking troops out of the South and not insisting on civil rights for African Americans. End of reconstruction. Return of white supremacy in the South. Not until Civil Rights movement will African Americans see their theoretical equality become real.
  2. Why was lynching done?
    As far as violence goes, organizations like the Ku Klux Klan were created to force blacks into submission. Having the right to vote was great in theory but if you got beat up with impunity for trying to vote, your right to vote remained in theory only. A typical form of violence that was used was lynching (illegal mob executions without trial). Those who carried out lynchings were never apprehended, tried, or convicted. The official excuse for lynching was that it was done to publish the rape of white women at the hands of black men. This was often just a thin excuse for killing African Americans who had been too successful in their business ventures or too assertive about their rights.
  3. How did lynching enforce sexual segregation?
    The rape accusation was also used to enforce sexual segregation since even consensual sex between white women and black men could stir a rape outcry in the community. Symbolically, the rape accusation speaks of loss of power. Many white Southerners feared a role reversal where newly empowered black men could rape white women (the exact opposite of what was the norm during slavery). 1940 was the first year since the Reconstruction in which no cases of lynching were recorded.
  4. When was the first year without lynching?
    1940
  5. What were Jim Crow laws?
    • designed to maintain white supremacy.
    • limiting the right to vote to people meeting some property and literacy requirement
    • problem for Southerners was that this measure took the right to vote from many poor white people as well
    • effort to avoid this, at the end of the 1800s, they used the Grandfather Clause: only men who had been eligible to vote before 1867 (or whose father or grandfather had been eligible)
    • 1898 Supreme Court upheld this. The Supreme Court in the 1896 case Plessy vs. Ferguson also established the “separate but equal” doctrine: ok to segregate railroad services as long as provide separate but equal facilities.
  6. Who won the 1876 election (while freed slaves are super poor) ?
    Hayes (GOP candidate) vs. Tilden (Dems), much fraud and close election, too close to call. In 1877 break tie with agreement: Demsagree to give the election to Hayes in exchange taking troops out of the South and not insisting on civil rights for African Americans. End of reconstruction. Return of white supremacy in the South.
  7. How did the 1876 election affect Reconstruction in the South?
    1877 break tie with agreement: Demsagree to give the election to Hayes in exchange taking troops out of the South and not insisting on civil rights for African Americans. End of reconstruction. Return of white supremacy in the South. Not until Civil Rights movement will African Americans see their theoretical equality become real.
  8. When did the first case of war between the U.S. Army and the Plains tribes take place?
    • Red Cloud War 1864-68
    • The first major episode of open war between the buffalo hunting tribes of the Plains and the U.S. government took place in 1854
    • The Cheyenne allied themselves with Lakota to stop American expansion. In the following few years, they relied on guerrilla tactics to harass the American army.
  9. What was the Fort Laramie Treaty?
    • 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty
    • Since the war wasn’t going too well, the U.S. government agreed to a treaty containing very favorable provisions for the tribes. Among other things, they acknowledged Indian sovereignty over most of the Northern Plains and stated that no land could be legally sold unless 75% of tribal members agreed to the sale.
  10. What are the key points of Fort Laramie treaty?
    Indian sovereignty over most of the Northern Plains and stated that no land could be legally sold unless 75% of tribal members agreed to the sale.
  11. Why did members of tribes such as the Crow, the Shoshoni, the Arikara and the Pawnee agree to serve as scouts for the Army?
    At this time, the U.S. Army suffered one of its most famous defeats at the hands of Indians in the Little Big Horn battle (in Montana), where almost 300 soldiers were killed while trying to attack a Lakota and Cheyenne village. The army, however, was able to keep tracking Lakota and Cheyenne through the winter (thanks to the help of rival tribes such as the Crow, Arikara, etc.) The lack of buffalo and the constant harassment by the army forced them to surrender by 1877.
  12. When and how did second war between the U.S. and the Plains tribes start (after Red Cloud War and Fort Laramie Treaty)?
    1874, an army expedition led by an officer named Custer illegally entered the Black Hills of South Dakota to verify rumors of gold being found there - This was in violation of the Ft. Laramie Treaty so the U.S. government tried to buy the land from Lakota and Cheyenne unable to convince the tribes, they then decided to go to war in 1876.
  13. When were the Plains tribes finally conquered?
    • The lack of buffalo and the constant harassment by the army forced them to surrender by 1877.
    • Lakota leader Crazy Horse, one of the most powerful symbols of Indian resistance, was murdered by a soldier soon after surrendering
  14. How many buffalo existed in North America at the beginning of the 1800s and how many were left at the end of the century?
    Since the tribes had proved hard to defeat (they were very mobile and hard to find), the government developed a new plan: hiring professional buffalo hunters to destroy the buffalo herds in order to starve the Plains tribes into submission. At the beginning of the 1800s, there were possibly 40 million buffalos in the United States. By 1895, there were less than 1000! One of the most dominant species in N. America was nearly wiped out in less than 100 years.
  15. What was the Ghost Dance?
    • The Ghost Dance mixed Christian ideas regarding the Apocalypse and the end of the world with Native ideas: white people would be wiped away in a major cataclysm and that dead Indians and buffalos would be resurrected
    • leaders of the Ghost Dance preached that Natives shouldn’t rebel, but should simply practice this ritual dance while waiting for the Apocalypse to come.
    • white settlers who misinterpreted it as a sign of an impending rebellion. The Army was called in to crush the Ghost Dance.
  16. Comstock Law: when did it pass?What did it outlaw?Who was its inspiration?
    • Obscenity: The idea that words or images can be obscene has religious origins and is linked to concepts like blasphemy and sacrilege. No laws about this until 1850s when the government outlaws the mailing of sexually oriented material.
    • Little enforcement of this law until the 1870s when Anthony Comstock begins anti-porn campaign. Comstock was a religious fundamentalist who was exposed to porn when he was young and he was tormented with guilt throughout his life.

    1873 bill makes it a crime to send obscene material in the mail (punishment up to ten years in prison: Comstock Law). Also vs. sending in the mail info about birth control or abortion. Comstock becomes a special agent for the U.S. Post Office Dept. For 40 years he will open other people mail and confiscate what offended him.
  17. Mann Act: when did it pass? What did it outlaw?
    • White Slave Traffic Act of 1910
    • So the Mann Act responded to this paranoia by making it illegal to bring a woman across state lines for unspecified “immoral purposes”. Eventually, church groups demanded to begin prosecuting not only cases of forced prostitution, but anybody crossing state lines with a woman and having sex outside of marriage. 1917 Caminetti case: U.S. Supreme Court confirms that Mann Act applies to non-prostitution cases. Part of the reason laid (no pun intended) in the fact that in the early 1900s very fine line in people’s minds between prostitution and women having sex out of marriage.
  18. How did the Caminetti case alter the meaning of Mann Act?
    1917 Caminetti case: U.S. Supreme Court confirms that Mann Act applies to non-prostitution cases. Part of the reason laid (no pun intended) in the fact that in the early 1900s very fine line in people’s minds between prostitution and women having sex out of marriage. Not needed that sex actually happens, just intention is enough. Any man bringing girlfriend across state line committed federal felony.
  19. Who were some of the famous people who were prosecuted for violation of this law?
    Mann Act for racism vs. Jack Johnson (heavyweight boxing champion) and Chuck Berry (musician), famous black men dating white women. Prior to 1908 segregation in boxing but Jack Johnson won title. New York Herald wrote,“Jim Jeffries [retired champion] must now emerge and remove that golden smile from Jack Johnson’s face. Jeff, it’s up to you. The White Man must be rescued.” Jeffries lost to Johnson in 1910. Police arrested Johnson in 1912 for violation of the Mann Act. Also, prosecution vs. Charlie Chaplin for political reasons.
  20. What was the Puritan punishment for adultery?
    Sodomy Laws: From the earliest days, British Puritans passed laws regulating consensual sex among adults in the American colonies.In addition to outlawing adultery, the Puritans used biblical passages to justify outlawing things such as homosexuality, oral and anal sex, etc. (these were known collectively as sodomy laws.)The penalty was typically death. Pennsylvania due to its Quaker influences was the mildest (6 months in jail, but this changed when Quakers began losing power in the state.)
  21. What are “sodomy laws” as defined in the United States?
    • some states prohibit  things only for unmarried couples, while others extend prohibition to everyone
    • as late as 2003, a person convicted of sodomy in Idaho could earn a sentence to life in prison, while in Michigan it was possible to get 15 years for a first offense and life in prison for the second
    • In 1986in Bowers vs. Hardwick, the Supreme Court upheld the legality of having laws regulating consensual sex between adults.
    • In 1986in Bowers vs. Hardwick, the Supreme Court upheld the legality of having laws regulating consensual sex between adults.
  22. Where is prostitution legal in the United States?
    Prostitution is now illegal in the U.S. except in some rural counties of Nevada and in Rhode Island. Debate whether regulation would be beneficial (more medical checks so less STDs, prostitutes less vulnerable to pimps, etc.) or bad (sanctioning what some consider immoral behavior).
  23. Why had St. Augustine argued in favor of legal prostitution?
    Augustine had famously argued that prostitution was a necessary evil, otherwise sex-crazed men would be seducing good Christian women.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview