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What is mass?
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
What is matter?
- Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space and has volume. Objects are matter.
- Matter exhibits the property of inertia (If something is at rest, it stays at rest unless a force acts on it.)
- Matter cannot occupy the same space as other matter at the same time.
- All matter can be categorized as either a pure substance or a mixture.
What are three properties of matter?
One property of all matter, whether it's a solid, liquid, or gas, is that it takes up space and has mass.
Solids don't change shape easily.If you put a solid in a container it won't change its shape... No matter how much you move or slide it around. Think of an ice cube inside a cup. The cube is solid and it stays the same shape.
Solid particles don't move around.
Solid particles are in an aligned array.
Liquids take the shape of their container. If you pour milk into a glass it will take the shape of the glass. If you pour the milk into a bowl, it takes the shape of the bowl.
Liquids have surface tension. The particles hold on to each other, like holding hands with a friend. The skin or surface of a glass filled with water holds together because the particles hold one to each other. That is called surface tension.
Liquids move around. The particles in liquids are farther apart than those of solids, so they can move around more. That's why liquids take the shape of their container.
Gas is invisible. That means you can't see it. The particles are so far apart they are invisible, but they are still there! Think about oxygen. You can't see it, but you know it's there because you breath it.
Gas particles move around freely. They are spread out move fast, like when you are running on the playground at recess.
What is pure substance?
- A pure substance has the same composition throughout, and pure substances often occur naturally. Two examples of pure substances are elements and compounds.
- Elements - cannot be broken down.
Compounds- are formed from the chemical combination of two or more elements. These elements cannot be separated by physical means. The properties of a compound are entirely different from the properties of each of the elements that make up the compound.
- Examples of pure substances:
- table salt
- prepared instant coffee
What is a mixture?
A mixture is formed when two or more substances (solids, liquids, or gases) are physically combined. The parts of a mixture can be physically separated from one another.
All of the substances in a mixture retain their original properties.
- Examples of a mixture:
- mixed nuts
- fruit salad
What are the two types of mixtures?
Homogeneous Mixture and Heterogeneous Mixture.
In a Homogeneous Mixture, the parts of the mixture are evenly distributed.
Examples of Homogeneous Mixtures: seawater, mayonnaise, bronze, soda pop.
In a Heterogeneous Mixture, the parts of the mixture are not evenly distributed.
Examples of Heterogeneous Mixtures: oil and vinegar salad dressing, soil
What is density?
Density is a physical property of matter. It is the amount of matter in a given volume of a substance.
Most commonly density referes either to the mass per unit volume (mass density) or the number of objects (e.g., atoms, molecules) per unit volume (number density).
The formula for finding density is mass divided by volume or D = M/V.
How do you find the volume of a given cube?
= length x width x height
Identify substances that are solids, liquids, and gasses.
- *Things like juice, water, and milk are liquids.
- *Walls, blocks, and clothes are solids.
- *Air and steam are gases.
What is matter made of?
Matter is made up of molecules.
What are molecules made up of?
- Molecules are made up of atoms.
Describe what molecules in a solid look like and how do they move?
In a solid, the molecules are close together. They do not move around very freely, but they do vibrate. A solid has a definite shape and volume. Solids can be described as crystalline (particles arranged in a regular, definite pattern) or amorphous (particles arranged in no particular order.)
- Molecules in a solid are moving slowest and are tightly packed. A solid has a fixed shape and volume.
How do molecules in a liquid move and what do they look like?
The molecules in a liquid are farther apart than the molecules in a solid. The force of attraction between a liquid's molecules is strong enough to keep the volume constant but not strong enough to give the matter a definite shape. The molecules in a liquid also move faster than the molecules in a solid. Liquids have definite volume but no definite shape.
- Molecules in a liquid are bumping and rolling against each other. A liquid has a fixed volume but takes on the shape of the container into which it is poured.
How do molecules in gas move and what do they look like?
Compared to the molecules in solids or liquids, the molecules in gases are very far apart. They are also moving very quickly. Because the forces between the molecules are weak, gases have no definite shape or volume. Gases expand to fill and take the shape of whatever container they are in Gases can be compressed. When they are compressed, their pressure increases.
- Molecules in a gas are moving around the fastest. A gas has no fixed shape or volume.
What is flammability?
Flammability is a chemical property. It is the ability of an object to burn.
When the temperature of a gas is extremely high, some of the gas becomes electrically charged. These charges create new physical properties. The formation of plasma can be simulated in a laboratory. It also occurs naturally inside stars. When clouds of plasma come in contact with the earth's atmosphere, they produce colored lights, or auroras, in the sky.
How does matter change from one state to another?
In order for matter to change from one form to another, energy must be added or removed. Each substance has its own freezing point, melting point, and boiling point. In other words, different substances change states at different temperatures.
At what temperature does water boil?
Water boils at 100 degrees celsius.
At what temperature does Water melt?
Water melts at 0 degrees celsius.
At what temperature does Mercury melt?
Mercury melts at -39 degrees celsius.
At what temperature does Mercury boil?
Mercury boils at 357 degrees celsius.
At what temperature does Oxygen melt?
Oxygen melts at -219 degrees celsius.
At what temperature does Oxygen boil?
Oxygen boils at -183 degrees celsius.
How do scientists define matter?
Scientists define matter as something that takes up space and has mass.
How can you demonstrate that a piece of chalk has mass?
I can put the piece of chalk on a scale and if the side the chalk is on tips, it has mass.
How can you demonstrate that helium takes up space?
If you put helium in a balloon, the balloon changes size and shape, meaning that helium takes up space.
Are YOU matter? Why or why not?
I am matter because I take up space and have mass.
Can you see all kinds of matter?
Yes, I can see all types of matter.
Is light from a fire matter?
No, because fire doesn't have mass.
List five things (not already listed in the text) in your classroom that are matter.
crayons, A.C., benches, pillow, pencils, books....