Cocaine: neurobehavioral depression or excitability, IUGR and develop delays
Nicotine: LBW, SGA
Fetal alcohol syndrome: persistent growth retardation, malformations of face and skull, mental retardation
How is NAS therapeutically managed?
early identification and intervention
Drug therapy to reduce withdrawal
Monitor for malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances
Frequent weights, I/O, caloric supplementation
What are inborn errors of metabolism?
Inherited diseases-usually caused by a lack of hormones or enzymes
Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and or fats are affected
Includes PKU, Hypothyroidism, galactosemia
What is PKU and how is it diagnosed?
An autosomal recessive disorder that results in CNS damage from toxic levels of phenylalanine in the blood due to a deficiency in phenylalanine hydoxylase enzyme needed to convert phenylalanine into tyrosine
Diagnostic eval: guthrie blood test from fresh heel stick is positive if phenylalanine levels >25mg/dL