Plant Nutrition Exam I

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MRK
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Plant Nutrition Exam I
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2014-10-06 20:24:36
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  1. Three Criteria for essentiality of elements
    • Cannot be substituted
    • involved in metabolic processes
    • requried to complete entire life cycle
  2. Non-mineral essential elements
    CHO
  3. Beneficial element (Name 2)
    • Co- used in N-fixing plants (not for whole life cycle)
    • Na- K and substitute for it
  4. Form of C
    CO2
  5. Form of H
    H2O
  6. Form of O
    CO2 H2O O2
  7. Form of N
    • NO3-
    • NH4+
  8. Form of P
    • H2PO4- 
    • HPO42-
  9. Form of S
    SO42-
  10. Form of Mo
    MoO4-
  11. Form of B
    • H3BO3
    • H2BO3-
  12. Form of K
    K+
  13. Form of Ca
    Ca2+
  14. Form of Mg
    Mg2+
  15. Form of Fe
    • Fe2+
    • Fe3+
  16. Form of Mn
    Mn2+
  17. Form of Cu
    Cu2+
  18. Form of Zn
    Zn2+
  19. Form of Ni
    Ni2+
  20. Form of Cl
    Cl-
  21. 5 factors that influence the expected concentration of a nutrient in a tissue
    • organ
    • plant age
    • enviroment
    • species
    • natural pulses in soil availability
  22. typical concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S in plants and Micros
    • N = 1.5
    • P = .2
    • K = 1
    • Ca = .5
    • Mg = .2
    • S = .1
    • Micros = measured in ppm
  23. Solution culture (advangates and disadvantages)
    • A: maintian precise control
    • D: not realistic
    • pH maintinance
    • oxygenation
  24. Sand-Culture (advangates and disadvantages)
    • A: Supporting media
    • Easier to maintain
    • D: Harder to maintain conditions
    • still have issues with solution culture
  25. Soil Experiments (advangates and disadvantages)
    • A: realistic
    • D: poor control of root enviroment
    • complex system
  26. How does the CGR curve relate to nutrient uptake rate?
    • NUR can be calculate by the rate of change of the slope
    • the larger the slope the most uptake
  27. What parameters determine NUR?
    • Root surface area
    • crop growth rate
  28. Nutrient uptake graph
    Growth by concentration
  29. Agronomic Efficiency
    PE x UE
  30. Physiological efficiency
    ∆yield/∆ Nutrient conc.
  31. Uptake efficiency
    ∆ nutrient concintration/fertilizer increment
  32. Law of the miniumum
    Plants will be limited by whichever nutrient is most deficient regardless if others are in excess
  33. Factors that control bioavailability
    • quantity
    • soil mositure
    • root-induced change in rhizophere
    • crop genetic nutrient demand
    • microbial activity
  34. Buffer Power
    ∆ quantity absorbed/∆ in intensity
  35. Lateral root initiate at the
    pericycle
  36. How do roots know when to proliferate
    • at enriched zone they have higher uptake
    • Phloem unloading increases loacally
    • respiration increases
    • higher unloading of IAA-> laterals
  37. by-pass flow
    when water goes straight to xylem through lateral root initation
  38. Donnan Free space
    • the other component of apparent free space (water free is other)
    • micropores between cells in roots
  39. Root internal order
    • Phloem etc.
    • paricycle
    • endodermis
    • cortex
    • epidermis
  40. plasmadesmota
    • ER is the gate mechanism
    • but Solute fluxes go through the Cytoplasmic sleeve
  41. Three membranes
    • plasmallema
    • tonoplast
    • casparian p
  42. M-M equation
    • I = Imax(Csol- Cmin)/Km + (Csol -Cmin)
    • I = influx rate
  43. Nernst Equation
    Chemical potential is f(electric, concentration, and hydrostatic)
  44. How to use Nernst
    • Simplified = ∆Ej = 1/z(59mV)(log(conc. out/conc. in))
    • if charge of answer and charge of ion are the same movement is active, if they are different movement is passive
  45. Symport
    • brings in H+ and cation
    • needs energy
    • moves into cytosol
    • is a carrier
  46. Antiporters
    • Moves H+ in and cation out
    • needs energy
    • moves into vaoclue
    • is a carrier
  47. Uniport
    • Passive
    • one ion, either way
    • a carrier
  48. Channel
    • lets ions in
    • fast (3x)
  49. elements that are pholem moble
    K Mg P S N Cl Na
  50. nutrients that are not phloem mobile
    Ca & Mn

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