In a lysogenic state, the integrated bacteriophage DNA is referred to as a _
After a bacteriophage injects its DNA into bacterial cell, the empty capsid that remains outside is called a "__"
In 1935, Wendell Stanley ___ viruses and then showed they were stilled infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ___ that inserts the viral genes into the host cell chromosome.
__ __ I referes to oral infections such as cold sores and fever blisters.
Originally taken from cervical cancer patient Henrietta Lacks in 1951, Hela cells represent a ___ (immortal) cell line used to culture viruses in vitro.
Retroviruses (including HIV) are RNA viruses that contain an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or __-__ DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
During replication of a DNA animal virus, DNA replication occurs in the __ of the host cell.
__ bodies are intracellular area of virus assembly whose location and appearance are constant and therefor used to identify cells infected with certain virus, such as rabies and measles.
The __ virus (which causes "flu") is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus.
A prion disease such as mad cow may also be called TSE, which stands for transmissible spongiform ___.
A __ cell line consist of embryonic cells that will grow for 100 or more generations in vitro.
During replication of a DNA animal virus, translation occurs in the __ of the host cell.
Nucleic acid replication, transcription and translation all occur during the ___ phase of the 1-step viral growth curve.
Hepatitis A, also known as __ hepatitis, is spread via the fecal-oral route.
HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called __ that helps in the assembly of new virus by cleaving the translated proteins.
Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, the enzyme __ (coded for a phage gene) causes lysis of the bacterial cell and release of new virus.
Some bacteriophages do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a __ cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations because of a repressor protein.
An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as Varicella-zoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called ___.
___ was a degenerative, fatal neurological prion disease of the Fore tribe of Papua, New Guinea which was perpetuated by cannibalistic rituals.
___ virus is still limited to certain parts of Africa; it causes profuse hemorrhaging at capillary beds throughout the body.
Prions cause fatal disease that affect the CNS; brain function degenerates as neurons die, and brain tissue develops sponge-like holes; referred to as transmissible ___ encephalopathies.
An example of a ___ virus infection in humans is the permeant Herpes infection known as Varicella-zoster.
Enveloped virus obtain their enveloped by ___ out of their host cell.
The protein coat of a virus is called a ____
Latent animal virus infections are similar to lysogeny in bacteria; here, the viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell DNA is called a ___ instead of prophage.
An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as Varicella-zoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of ___ and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
Many different viruses cause the common cold, but ___ causes the really severe cold.
BSE( ___ spongiform encephalopathy) is commonly known as mad cow disease.
Viral replication begins with ___ (attachment) due to chemical recognition of host cell receptors.
In 1935, Wendell ___ crystallized viruses and the show they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
An icosahedron is a __ with 20 equilateral triangle faces.
Herpes simplex __ (number) is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
___ ___ refers to the number of new viruses released by lysis of the host cell.
Human __ virus casuses "slapped cheek syndrome"
___ is also known as "serum" hepatitis; it is spread in the same ways HIV is spread, but it is even more contagious than HIV.
Although cells are measured in micrometers, virus size is measured in units called __ ; the average range is 20-300 and this equals .02-.3 um
Herpes simplex I is also known as ___ herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
During viral replication, ___ ___ occurs when the capsid proteins and nucleic acids join together.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus ___ named them the latinized named "contagium vividiim fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
The mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the ___ salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
RNA viruses code for an enzyme named __ -___ RNA polymerase in oder to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
The "I" in HIV stands for the word ___
___ ____ __ is also known as genital herpes.
herpes simplex II
A ___ is an empty spot in a lawn of a bacteria on an agar plate; it began when a bacteriophage infected a cell, eventually leading to death of all cells in the immediate area.
Double-stranded DNA viruses called ____ viruses cause warts.
The first virus ever "discovered" was the ___ ___ virus, by Dmitri Iwanowski in 1892.
Hepatitis A, also known as "infectious" hepatitis, is spread via the ___ - ___ route.
Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them the latinized named "contagium _____ fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
In 1892, ___ ____ discovered the first virus, the tobacco mosaic virus.
The ___ virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the parotid salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
The ___ virus caused smallpox; it has been eradicated from all human populations since 1979.
Herpes simplex II is also know as ___ ____
Prophage genes remain integrated into bacterial chromosome as long as ___ protein is present; spontaneous induction occurs when UV radiation or chemical damage the protein so it is no longer present; the prophage genes separate and enter a lytic cycle.
____ bacteriophages such as the lambda phage do no kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a lysogenic cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations.
A viral capsid is composed of protein subunits called ___
RNA viruses code for an enzyme name RNA dependent ___ ___ in order to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in cows and humans
The word virus mean "__" in latin
an example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as ___-___
yellowing of the skin, known as ___ is a common sign of hepatitis which damages the liver
some viral capsids or envelops contain projecting protein ___ that aid in attachment to the host cell
RNA animal viruses undergo the synthesis phase of replication in the ___ of the host cell
animal viruses with a membrane cover derived from the host cell are called ___; those without are term naked
cervical cancer cells originally taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1952, known as ___ cells represent a continuous (immortal) cell line still used to culture viruses
t-even bacteriophages are termed ___ because they undergo a lytic cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 mins
lysozyme is an enzyme coded by bacteriophage DNA it causes ___ of the host cell wall when viral replication is complete
___ ___ __ refers to sexually transmitted genital infections
herpes simplex II
the ___ phase of the lytic cycle starts with adsorption and continues though synthesis
human parvovirus causes ___ ___ ___
slapped cheek syndrome
___ is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion that occurs in sheep and goats
although many different viruses causes the common gold, mold colds are caused by ___
t-even bacteriophages (such as t4) are termed virulent because they undergo a ____ cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 minutes
a viral capsid is composed of ___ subunits called capsomeres
reverse transcriptase is also know as RNA-dependent ___ ___
lysogenized bacteria contain integrated bacteriophage genes (prophage) and are immune to further viral attack; this is referred to as lysogenic ___ ; example of lysogenized bacteria that causes disease of the viral genes include Cornyebacterium diphtheria, Streptococcus progenies , Clostridium botulinum
an ___ is a polyhedron with 20 equilateral triangle faces; it is a common shape for viral capsids
___ refers to the transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "faulty" bacteriophage; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria
a ___ (such as HIV) is an RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase (also called RNA dependent - DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA template
___ ___ refers to the length of time from bacteriophage adsorption to release by lysis; averages 20-40 minutes
during replication of animal viruses, ___ occurs between penetration and synthesis; it involves the removal of the protein capsid to release the viral nucleic acid
___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease of humans caused by a prion; it is estimated to affect one of every one million people between the ages of 40 and 65; death occurs 3-24 months after the onset of symptoms
the variola virus caused ____; it has been eradicated from all human populations since 1979
bacteriophage accomplish ___ by injecting their DNA (like a hypodermic needle) into the bacterial cell, leaving an empty capsid called a "ghost phage" outside
when animal viruses are grown in the laboratory ___ effects such as abnormal cell morphology, plaques in tissue culture, or characteristically stained cellular areas called inclusion bodies indicate the active presence of the virus
the animal host cells enables virus ___ by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
____ bacteria contain viral DNA in the form of a prophage
a retrovirus (such as HIV) is a RNA virus that contains ___ ___ (also called RNA dependent - DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
the ___ ___ ___ was started in the early 1950s to raise money for polio vaccine research
march of dimes
DNA animal virus undergo spontaneous assembly in the ____ of the host cell
___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in deer and elk
the ___ virus causes a fatal hydrophobia in mammals
it is necessary to use an ___ microscope to actually see viruses
soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them the latin name " ____ ____ ____ " this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus"
contagium vividium fluidium
____ are self-replicating proteinaceous infections agents without nucleic acid that cause fatal neurological disease; brain function degenerates such as neurons die, and the brain develops sponge-like holes
an elongated capsid is all called ___ or tubular; TMV has this morphology
transduction refers to the transfer of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "____" bacteriophage; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria
the ___ virus causes a paralytic disease by damaging myelin sheaths of motor neurons
a ____ is a virus that infects bacteria
instead of the typical growth curve of all living organisms (lag, log, stationary and death phase) viruses exhibit a ___ ___ growth curve
___ ____ __ is also known as genital herpes
herpes simplex II
DNA animal viruses undergo transcription in the ___ of the host cell
the complex morphology of a bacteriophage capsid is called ___ because the head is a polyhedron and the tail assembly us helical
to culture animal viruses, a ___ cell line consists of mature cells that will only divide for a few generations into vitro
in the lytic cycle, the first enzyme produced during the synthesis stage is ____, which destroys the bacterial chromosome
inclusion bodies observed in brain cells infected with the rabies virus are called ____ bodies
once bacteriophage assembly is completed, an enzyme called lysozyme (coded by a phage gene) causes ___ of the bacterial cell
animal virus with a membrane cover derived from the host cell are called enveloped; those without are termed "___"