Viruses and Prions

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Author:
mikgarcia78
ID:
284878
Filename:
Viruses and Prions
Updated:
2014-10-06 23:46:06
Tags:
Vriuses Prions
Folders:
Microbiology
Description:
based from crossword puzzle
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  1. In a lysogenic state, the integrated bacteriophage DNA is referred to as a _
    prophage
  2. After a bacteriophage injects its DNA into bacterial cell, the empty capsid that remains outside is called a "__"
    ghostphage
  3. In 1935, Wendell Stanley ___ viruses and then showed they were stilled infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
    crystallized
  4. HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called ___ that inserts the viral genes into the host cell chromosome.
    integrase
  5. __ __ I referes to oral infections such as cold sores and fever blisters.
    Herpes Simplex
  6. Originally taken from cervical cancer patient Henrietta Lacks in 1951, Hela cells represent a ___ (immortal) cell line used to culture viruses in vitro.
    continuous
  7. Retroviruses (including HIV) are RNA viruses that contain an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or __-__ DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
    RNA dependent
  8. During replication of a DNA animal virus, DNA replication occurs in the __ of the host cell.
    nucleus
  9. __ bodies are intracellular area of virus assembly whose location and appearance are constant and therefor used to identify cells infected with certain virus, such as rabies and measles.
    inclusion
  10. The __ virus (which causes "flu") is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus.
    influenza
  11. A prion disease such as mad cow may also be called TSE, which stands for transmissible spongiform ___.
    encephalopathy
  12. A __ cell line consist of embryonic cells that will grow for 100 or more generations in vitro.
    secondary
  13. During replication of a DNA animal virus, translation occurs in the __ of the host cell.
    cytoplasm
  14. Nucleic acid replication, transcription and translation all occur during the ___ phase of the 1-step viral growth curve.
    synthesis
  15. Hepatitis A, also known as __ hepatitis, is spread via the fecal-oral route.
    infectious
  16. HIV contains a prepackaged enzyme called __ that helps in the assembly of new virus by cleaving the translated proteins.
    protease
  17. Once bacteriophage assembly is completed, the enzyme __ (coded for a phage gene) causes lysis of the bacterial cell and release of new virus.
    lysozyme
  18. Some bacteriophages do not kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a __ cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations because of a repressor protein.
    lysogenic
  19. An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as Varicella-zoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of chickenpox and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called ___.
    shingles
  20. ___ was a degenerative, fatal neurological prion disease of the Fore tribe of Papua, New Guinea which was perpetuated by cannibalistic rituals.
    kuru
  21. ___ virus is still limited to certain parts of Africa; it causes profuse hemorrhaging at capillary beds throughout the body.
    ebola
  22. Prions cause fatal disease that affect the CNS; brain function degenerates as neurons die, and brain tissue develops sponge-like holes; referred to as transmissible ___ encephalopathies.
    spongiform
  23. An example of a ___ virus infection in humans is the permeant Herpes infection known as Varicella-zoster.
    latent
  24. Enveloped virus obtain their enveloped by ___ out of their host cell.
    budding
  25. The protein coat of a virus is called a ____
    capsid
  26. Latent animal virus infections are similar to lysogeny in bacteria; here, the viral DNA that is integrated into the host cell DNA is called a ___ instead of prophage.
    provirus
  27. An example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as Varicella-zoster; Varicella refers to the primary infection of ___ and zoster refers to subsequent outbreaks called shingles.
    chickenpox
  28. Many different viruses cause the common cold, but ___ causes the really severe cold.
    adenoviruses
  29. BSE( ___ spongiform encephalopathy) is commonly known as mad cow disease.
    bovine
  30. Viral replication begins with ___ (attachment) due to chemical recognition of host cell receptors.
    adsorption
  31. In 1935, Wendell ___ crystallized viruses and the show they were still infectious, proving they were not cellular organisms.
    stanley
  32. An icosahedron is a __ with 20 equilateral triangle faces.
    polyhedron
  33. Herpes simplex __ (number) is also known as oral herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
    one
  34. ___ ___ refers to the number of new viruses released by lysis of the host cell.
    burst size
  35. Human __ virus casuses "slapped cheek syndrome"
    parvo
  36. ___  is also known as "serum" hepatitis; it is spread in the same ways HIV is spread, but it is even more contagious than HIV.
    hepatitis b
  37. Although cells are measured in micrometers, virus size is measured in units called __ ; the average range is 20-300 and this equals .02-.3 um
    nanometers
  38. Herpes simplex I is also known as ___ herpes; cold sores and fever blisters.
    oral
  39. During viral replication, ___ ___ occurs when the capsid proteins and nucleic acids join together.
    spontaneous assembly
  40. Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus ___ named them the latinized named "contagium vividiim fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
    Beijerinck
  41. The mumps virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the ___ salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
    parotid
  42. RNA viruses code for an enzyme named __ -___ RNA polymerase in oder to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
    RNA dependent
  43. The "I" in HIV stands for the word ___
    immunodeficiency
  44. ___ ____ __ is also known as genital herpes.
    herpes simplex II
  45. A ___ is an empty spot in a lawn of a bacteria on an agar plate; it began when a bacteriophage infected a cell, eventually leading to death of all cells in the immediate area.
    plaque
  46. Double-stranded DNA viruses called ____ viruses cause warts.
    papilloma
  47. The first virus ever "discovered" was the ___ ___ virus, by Dmitri Iwanowski in 1892.
    tobacco mosaic
  48. Hepatitis A, also known as "infectious" hepatitis, is spread via the ___ - ___ route.
    fecal oral
  49. Soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them the latinized named "contagium _____ fluidium;" this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus."
    vividium
  50. In 1892, ___ ____ discovered the first virus, the tobacco mosaic virus.
    Dmitri Iwanowski
  51. The ___ virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes the parotid salivary glands to swell, making swallowing very painful.
    mumps
  52. The ___ virus caused smallpox; it has been eradicated from all human populations since 1979.
    variola
  53. Herpes simplex II is also know as ___ ____
    genital herpes
  54. Prophage genes remain integrated into bacterial chromosome as long as ___ protein is present; spontaneous induction occurs when UV radiation or chemical damage the protein so it is no longer present; the prophage genes separate and enter a lytic cycle.
    repressor
  55. ____ bacteriophages such as the lambda phage do no kill their host cells immediately, but instead enter a lysogenic cycle as a prophage; they are replicated along with the host cell cell DNA and may remain in place for many generations.
    temperate
  56. A viral capsid is composed of protein subunits called ___
    capsomeres
  57. RNA viruses code for an enzyme name RNA dependent ___ ___ in order to make RNA copies of their RNA genome.
    RNA polymerase
  58. ___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in cows and humans
    mad cow
  59. The word virus mean "__" in latin
    poison
  60. an example of a latent viral infection in humans is the permanent Herpes infection known as ___-___
    varciella zoster
  61. yellowing of the skin, known as ___ is a common sign of hepatitis which damages the liver
    jaundice
  62. some viral capsids or envelops contain projecting protein ___ that aid in attachment to the host cell
    spikes
  63. RNA animal viruses undergo the synthesis phase of replication in the ___ of the host cell
    cytoplasm
  64. animal viruses with a membrane cover derived from the host cell are called ___; those without are term naked
    enveloped
  65. cervical cancer cells originally taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1952, known as ___ cells represent a continuous (immortal) cell line still used to culture viruses
    hela
  66. t-even bacteriophages are termed ___ because they undergo a lytic cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 mins
    virulent
  67. lysozyme is an enzyme coded by bacteriophage DNA it causes ___ of the host cell wall when viral replication is complete
    lysis
  68. ___ ___ __ refers to sexually transmitted genital infections
    herpes simplex II
  69. the ___ phase of the lytic cycle starts with adsorption and continues though synthesis
    eclipse
  70. human parvovirus causes ___ ___ ___
    slapped cheek syndrome
  71. ___ is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion that occurs in sheep and goats
    scrapie
  72. although many different viruses causes the common gold, mold colds are caused by ___
    rhino viruses
  73. t-even bacteriophages (such as t4) are termed virulent because they undergo a ____ cycle that destroys the cell in 20-40 minutes
    lytic
  74. a viral capsid is composed of ___ subunits called capsomeres
    protein
  75. reverse transcriptase is also know as RNA-dependent ___ ___
    DNA polymerase
  76. lysogenized bacteria contain integrated bacteriophage genes (prophage) and are immune to further viral attack; this is referred to as lysogenic ___ ; example of lysogenized bacteria that causes disease of the viral genes include Cornyebacterium diphtheria, Streptococcus progenies , Clostridium botulinum 
    conversion
  77. an ___ is a polyhedron with 20 equilateral triangle faces; it is a common shape for viral capsids
    icosahedron
  78. ___ refers to the transfer  of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "faulty" bacteriophage; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria
    transduction
  79. a ___ (such as HIV) is an RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase (also called RNA dependent - DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA template
    retrovirus
  80. ___ ___ refers to the length of time from bacteriophage adsorption to release by lysis; averages 20-40 minutes
    burst time
  81. during replication of animal viruses, ___ occurs between penetration and synthesis; it involves the removal of the protein capsid to release the viral nucleic acid
    uncoating
  82. ___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease of humans caused by a prion; it is estimated to affect one of every one million people between the ages of 40 and 65; death occurs 3-24 months after the onset of symptoms
    creutz feldtjakob
  83. the variola virus caused ____; it has been eradicated from all human populations since 1979
    smallpox
  84. bacteriophage accomplish ___ by injecting their DNA (like a hypodermic needle) into the bacterial cell, leaving an empty capsid called a "ghost phage" outside
    penetration
  85. when animal viruses are grown in the laboratory ___ effects such as abnormal cell morphology, plaques in tissue culture, or characteristically stained cellular areas called inclusion bodies indicate the active presence of the virus
    cytopathic
  86. the animal host cells enables virus ___ by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    penetration
  87. ____ bacteria contain viral DNA in the form of a prophage
    lysogenized
  88. a retrovirus (such as HIV) is a RNA virus that contains ___ ___ (also called RNA dependent - DNA polymerase) to make DNA copies from RNA templates.
    reverse transcriptase
  89. the ___ ___ ___ was started in the early 1950s to raise money for polio vaccine research
    march of dimes
  90. DNA animal virus undergo spontaneous assembly in the ____ of the host cell
    nucleus
  91. ___ ___ disease is a fatal neurological disease caused by a prion; it occurs in deer and elk
    chronic wasting
  92. the ___ virus causes a fatal hydrophobia in mammals
    rabies
  93. it is necessary to use an ___ microscope to actually see viruses
    electron
  94. soon after viruses were discovered, Martinus Beijerinck named them the latin name " ____ ____ ____ " this rather cumbersome name wasn't popular, and was eventually replaced by "virus"
    contagium vividium fluidium
  95. ____ are self-replicating proteinaceous infections agents without nucleic acid that cause fatal neurological disease; brain function degenerates such as neurons die, and the brain develops sponge-like holes
    prions
  96. an elongated capsid is all called ___ or tubular; TMV has this morphology
    helical
  97. transduction refers to the transfer  of bacterial DNA from one cell to another by means of a "____" bacteriophage; this process results in increased genetic variability for bacteria
    faulty
  98. the ___ virus causes a paralytic disease by damaging myelin sheaths of motor neurons
    polio
  99. a ____ is a virus that infects bacteria
    bacteriophage
  100. instead of the typical growth curve of all living organisms (lag, log, stationary and death phase) viruses exhibit a ___ ___ growth curve
    one step
  101. ___ ____ __ is also known as genital herpes
    herpes simplex II
  102. DNA animal viruses undergo transcription in the ___ of the host cell
    nucleus
  103. the complex morphology of a bacteriophage capsid is called ___ because the head is a polyhedron and the tail assembly us helical
    combination
  104. to culture animal viruses, a ___ cell line consists of mature cells that will only divide for a few generations into vitro
    primary
  105. in the lytic cycle, the first enzyme produced during the synthesis stage is ____, which destroys the bacterial chromosome
    nuclease
  106. inclusion bodies observed in brain cells infected with the rabies virus are called ____ bodies
    negri
  107. once bacteriophage assembly is completed, an enzyme called lysozyme (coded by a phage gene) causes ___ of the bacterial cell
    lysis
  108. animal virus with a membrane cover derived from the host cell are called enveloped; those without are termed "___"
    naked

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