Movement along a pressure gradient within the vascular beds.
What is turbulent blood flow? and how does it manifest?
Is an interruption in the forward current of blood flow by crosswise flow.
Turbulent flow may manifest as:
Bruit: turbulent blood flow that can be auscultated.
Thrill: Turbulent blood flow that can be palpated and auscultated.
What is blood pressure?
Moving from higher pressure (arteries/arterioles) towards lower pressure (vein/venous); the greater the pressure difference, the greater the blood flow.
What is vessel resistance? and what determinants it?
3 determinants: length, diameter, and viscosity.
opposing forces that deter blood flow; as resistance increases, blood flow decreases.
Changes in diameter is the most important determinant for blood flow, since the length canon be change by the body.
The more viscous the blood, the more the resistance, the slower the flow rate. High amout of RBCs or low amt of platelets cause this.
What is a Thrombus (thrombosis)?
it is a stationary blood clot formed within a vessel or a chamber of the heart.
What is the etiology of a thrombus? what is the difference b/t Arterial and venous thombus?
When blood slows dramatically, becomes more turbulent, if there is a damage to intimal walls or drugs (oral contraceptives).
Arterial thrombosis results in ischemia.
venous thrombosis results in edema. Phlebitis: inflammation in a vein.
what is Thrombophlebitis?
Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation with a clot in a vein. It this breaks and becomes mobile can result in the right side of the heart causing an pulmonary embolism (PE)
Clinical Manifestation of a thrombus? both arterial and venous.
arerial: Intermittent claudication (pain with activity) in affected limb that improves with rest. Cool, cyanotic, painful ulcer around one toe.
Venous: None or life threading (Except PE) calf/groin tenderness, swelling, + human's sign (dorsiflexion of the ankle with pressure, if calf tenderness, means positive. avoid do this test on pregnant women.
What are the risk factors of a thombus? both arterial and venous.
Nonmodifiable: family history, age, gender, ethnicity.
How does atherosclerosis occurs? and what can disease could cause?
atherosclerosis: 1.Low-density serum lipoproteins breach intimal layer 2.Simultaneously, platelets aggregate at the site 3.Media smooth muscle cells, normally confined to the other tunicas, drawn to the intima where they proliferate 4.Result: atherosclerotic plaque, primarily composed of smooth muscle cells, lipoproteins, and inflammatory debris 5.Plaques slowly enlarge, the orifice of the artery is decreased and perfusion is diminished
Diseases: Can lead to hypertension, cardiac (CAD) and renal disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and myocardial infarction
What are the clinical manifestations of artherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is an abnormality of arterial blood vessels, it can affect almost any organ in the body.