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2014-11-19 13:47:14
Management 01
Management 01 --> PRC, STR, STG
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  1. Facilitating services
    E.g. crude oil producers are concerned almost exclusively with their product. However, they might offer some services like technical advice. These are facilitating services.
  2. Facilitating products
    An information systems provider may produce software produts, but primarily it is providing a service to its customers, with facilitating products.
  3. ITO
    Input - Transformtion - Output
  4. Competitive factors
    Low price, high quality, fast delivery, reliable delivery, innovative products and services, wide range of products and services, the ability to change the timing or quantity of products and services
  5. Performance objectives
    Cost, quality, speed, dependability, flexibility (product/service), flexibility (mix), flexibility (volume and/or delivery)
  6. Order-winning factors
    Those things which directly and significantly contribute to winning business
  7. Qualifying factors
    Those aspects of competitiveness where the operation's performance has to be above a particular level just to be considered by the customer.
  8. 3 aspects of designing a service or product
    concept, package, process
  9. Reverse engineering
    Taking apart a product to understand how a competing organisation has made it
  10. 3 approaches to complexity reduction
    standardisation, commonality, modularisation
  11. Range of organisational structures
    from pure functional to pure project forms
  12. Manufacturing process types
    Project/Jobbing/Batch/Mass/Continuous processes
  13. Service process types
    Professional services, service shops, mass services
  14. Little's law
    throughput time = work-in-process x cycle time
  15. Cycle time
    average time between units of output emerging from the process
  16. work-in-process/progress (WIP)
    units waiting to be processed
  17. throughput time
    work-in-process x cycle time
  18. bottleneck
    longest stage in the process
  19. throughput efficiency
    (work content / throughput time) x 100
  20. value-added throughput efficiency
    restricts work content to only those tasks that are actually adding value to whatever is being processed
  21. hourly cost
  22. unit cost
    labour cost per unit of production
  23. Layout types
    Fixed-position / Functional / Cell / Line layout
  24. Supply network perspective
    Setting an operation in the context of all the customers and suppliers that interact with it. (Materials, parts, information, ideas, people)
  25. Third-party logistics (TPL)
    Outsourcing to a specialist logistics company
  26. Co-opetition
    • All the players in the supply network, whether they are customers, suppliers, competitors or complementors, can be both friends and
    • enemies at different times.
  27. Types of relationships in a supply network
    B2B (Business to Business), B2C (Business to Consumer), C2B (Consumer to Business), C2C (Consumer to Consumer or peer to peer [P2P])
  28. Virtual operations
    • Do little themselves, rely on network of suppliers that can provide services and
    • products on demand.
  29. Single-sourcing
    Source each individual product or service from one supplier
  30. Multi-sourcing
    Source each individual product or service from more than one supplier
  31. Dual-sourcing or parallel sourcing
    Using two suppliers for similar good or services. They are required to cooperate, but through adjusting the percentage of the contract according to previous performance competition can be achieved at the same time.
  32. Bullwhip effect
    A small disturbance at the downstream end of a supply network cases increasingly large disturbances, errors.
  33. Causes of the bullwhip effect
    • Misunderstanding and miscommunication, errors in forecasting, long or variable lead times, order batching, volatility in demand
    • caused by price fluctuations or promotions, panic ordering, perceived risk of
    • other’s bounded rationality within a supply network.
  34. E-procurement
    Use of electronic methods in every stage of the purchasing process.
  35. Five phases of SCOR model (supply chain operations reference model)
    Discover, Analyse, Material flow design, Work and information flow design, Implementation planning.
  36. Capacity
    fixed volume of a container or the space in a building
  37. Capacity of an operation
    fixed volume + time --> the maximum level of value-added activity over a period of time
  38. Capacity constraints
    parts of the operation that are operating at their capacity ceiling
  39. Cause of seasonality of demand
    Climatic, festive, behavioural, political, financial, social
  40. Overall equipment efficiency (3 aspects)
    time, quality, speed
  41. Yield management
    use the capacity of the operation for generating revene to its full potential
  42. How to maximise the yield
    over-booking capacity, price discounting, varying service types
  43. Inventory
    stored accumulation of (transformed) resources in a transformation system
  44. Day-to-day inventory decisions
    how much to order, when to order, how to control the system
  45. Consignment stock
    Large quantities of inventory are delivered to the customers to store, but they will only be charged for the goods as and when they are used.