Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 11

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Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 11
2014-10-23 22:13:41
Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 11
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  1. Electric Circuit
    -a closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow

    EXAMPLE: when you turn on a light switch the circuit is closed so the flow of electrons makes the light turn on

  2. Voltaic Cell (A.K.A. Cell)
    -a source of energy that generates an electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metals or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor

    NOTES: invented by A. Volta
  3. Battery
    -a connection of two or more cells

    EXAMPLE: when there are two or more cells in a flashlight it is called a battery

  4. Electrode
    -one of two metal terminals in a cell or battery

    NOTE: must be made of different materials
  5. Electrolyte
    -a solution or paste that conducts charge

    NOTE: electrodes are immersed in electrolytes
  6. Dry Cell
    -a cell that contains an electrolyte that is a paste

  7. Wet Cell
    -a cell that contains a liquid electrolyte

  8. Primary Cell
    -a cell that can be used only once
  9. Secondary Cell
    -a cell that can be recharged

    NOTE: electrical current is passed through the cell in the opposite direction which then reverses chemical reaction

    EXAMPLE: the lead acid battery used in trucks, automobiles, motorcycles and wheelchairs
  10. Fuel Cell
    -a cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the cell

    EXAMPLE: automobiles, buses and small devices such as cellphones
  11. Solar Cell
    -a cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy

    EXAMPLE: solar panels

  12. Terminal
    -location on a cell that must be connected to the other components to form a circuit

    NOTE: all cells have a positive and a negative terminal with the electrons flowing from the negative pole to the positive pole

  13. Switch
    -a control device (conductor) that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected

    NOTE: not essential on a circuit

  14. Open Circuit
    -a circuit that contains a gap or break

    NOTE: electrons do not flow through any part of the circuit where there is a gap or break

    EXAMPLE: if a bulb is loose and does not make contact with the base of its socket, the circuit is open and the bulb will not glow
  15. Electric Current
    -the rate of movement of electric charge

    NOTE: flow of electrons through a conductor

    EXAMPLE: (analogy) the amount of water passing by, such as cubic metres of water, passing by per second
  16. Coulomb (C)
    -the quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25x electrons
  17. Ampere (A)
    -the unit of electric current, equivalent to one coulomb per second

    NOTE: measured using an ammeter

  18. Electrical Resistance
    -the property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electrical energy to other forms of energy
  19. Resistor
    -a device used to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount

  20. Load
    -a resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat, motion, sound, or light

    EXAMPLE: when electrons collide with metal ions some energy is converted into heat
  21. Potential Difference(Voltage)
    -(voltage) the difference between the electrical potential energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit

    NOTE: measured using a voltmeter

  22. Volt
    -the unit for potential difference, equivalent to one joule(j) per coulomb(C)

    EXAMPLE: a cell marked 1.5 V will do 1.5 J of work moving a coulomb of electrons from the negative terminal through the circuit to the positive terminal
  23. Circuit Diagram
    -a diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electric field and their connections

  24. Series Circuit
    -a circuit in which there is only one path along which electrons can flow

    NOTE: there are specific places in a series circuit where components are connected to the conducting wires are called series connections

  25. Parallel Circuit
    -a circuit in which there is more than one path along which electrons can flow

    NOTE: there are specific parts of a parallel circuit where there are more than one pathway that are called parallel connections

  26. Ohm’s Law
    -the ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance

    • V=IR
  27. Ohm (Ω)
    -the unit for resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A)

    • V=IR
    • R=V/I
    • V/A=Ω
  28. Superconductor
    -a material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance

    NOTE: the resistance of a wire increases as its temperature increases
  29. Non-Ohmic
    -not following ohm's law

    NOTE: needs to have a constant resistance
  30. Loads In Series
    • CURRENT: the same at all points lT=l1=l2=l3
    • POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE: splits up because energy has to be shared by all loads VT=V1+V2+V3
    • RESISTANCE: more loads=greater resistance RT=R1+R2+R3
    • GLOW: more bulbs=less intensity of brightness
  31. Loads In Parallel
    • CURRENT: splits up as there is more than one path lT=l1+l2+l3
    • POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE: same down each path because the energy they are carrying down each path is the same
    • VT=V1=V2=V3
    • RESISTANCE: more paths in parallel=less resistance RT<R1;RT<R2;RT<R3
    • GLOW: brightness of the bulbs remain the same as each path receives the same amount of energy