Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 12

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MalloryHaggith
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284933
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Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 12
Updated:
2014-11-03 20:58:10
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Electricity
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Electricity Glossary Terms Chapter 12
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  1. Direct current (DC)
    -current in which charged particles travel through a circuit in only one direction

    NOTE: this occurs in the current from a cell as it travels from the negative terminal to the positive terminal

  2. Alternating Current (AC)
    -current in which electrons move back and forth in a circuit

    NOTE: there is zero net movement of electrons in either direction

    NOTE: this allows us to transmit more energy without much loss of the energy as heat

    • EXAMPLE: generating a current in a coil by moving magnet in and out of the coil is AC as the current moves in one direction when the pole of the magnet is inserted into the coil and in the opposite direction when taken away
  3. Transformer
    -an electrical device that changes the size of the potential difference of an alternating current

    NOTE: does not work in direct current

    NOTE: transformers that increase the potential difference are called step-up transformers and, transformers that decrease the potential difference are called step-down transformers

    EXAMPLE: when a cell phone is plugged into a wall socket, a transformer reduces the potential difference from 110V to the potential difference needed
  4. Circuit Breaker
    -safety device that is place in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets

    NOTE: located in distribution panels

    NOTE: limits the amount of current to a set value and prevents overheating in wires and fires

    • EXAMPLE: connected in series with meter and in parallel with other breakers so when the current is too large, circuit breakers heat then bend and break contact with another part opening the circuit (when that occurs circuit breaker must be reset)
  5. Fuse
    -a safety device that is found in older buildings and some appliances; like a circuit breaker, it is placed in series with other circuits, which lead to appliances and outlets

    NOTE: located in distribution panels

    • EXAMPLE: they contain a metal conductor that melts at a certain temperature that goes with a set amount of current, which creates an open circuit and stops the current (when that occurs it must be replaced)
  6. Electrical Power
    - the rate at which an appliance uses electrical energy

    NOTE: measured in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW)
  7.  Watt (W)
    -a unit of electrical power

    NOTE: 1W=1J/s
  8. Kilowatt (kW)
    -a practical unit of electrical power; 1kW=1000W
  9. Electrical Energy
    -the energy that is used by an appliance at a given setting; determined by multiplying the power rating of an appliance by the length of time it is used

    NOTE: determined by multiplying the power rating by the length of time used (E=Pxt) and measured in kW∙H (kilowatt-hours)
  10. Kilowatt-Hour (kW∙H)
    -the practical unit of electrical energy
  11. EnerGuide Label
    -a label that gives details about how much energy an appliance uses in one year of normal use

  12. Smart Meter
    -a meter that record the total electrical energy used hour by hour and sends this information to the utility company automatically

  13. Time Of Use Pricing
    -a system of pricing in which the cost of each kW∙H of energy used is different at different times of the day

    NOTE: used as off-peak, mid-peak and, on-peak

  14. Phantom Load
    -the electricity that is consumed by an appliance or device when it is turned off

    EXAMPLE: TV's, clocks and external power require phantom load

    TIP: just unplug your device or appliance to save on energy and prevent a phantom load

  15. Efficiency
    -the ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, expressed as a percentage

    NOTE: percent efficiency=useful energy output/total energy input (Pxtx100)
  16. Base Load
    -the continuous minimum demand for electrical power

    NOTE: in Ontario this is generated in the early morning hours when most people are asleep

  17. Hydroelectric Power Generation
    -the generation of electrical power using a source of moving water

    NOTE: the two types of hydroelectric power generation are dam stations and run-off river stations

    ADVANTAGES: environmentally friendly, produces almost no greenhouse gases, is about 90% efficient and it is a renewable energy source

    DISADVANTAGE: large areas of land must be flooded (which may lead to the decay of vegetation and production of methaneFalls)

    LOCATION: Niagara

  18. Intermediate Load
    -a demand for electricity that is greater than the base load and is met by burning coal and natural gas

  19. Peak Load
    -the greatest demand for electricity, which is met by using hydroelectric power and natural gas

    NOTE: cost of providing electricity increases

    NOTE: higher on-peak rates apply

  20. Renewable Energy Source
    -a source of energy that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time

    EXAMPLE: hydroelectric energy

  21. Non-Renewable Energy Source
    -a source of energy that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used

    EXAMPLE: fossil fuels

  22. Solar Energy
    -energy that is directly converted from the Sun into electricity

    ADVANTAGES: free fuel, little negative impact on the environment

    DISADVANTAGES: not very efficient or concentrated and the systems are very expensive

  23. Photovoltaic Effect
    -the generation of a direct current when certain materials are exposed to light

    EXAMPLE: calculators have solar cells

    NOTE: it is a challenging task to collect and convert the huge amounts of energy from the sun to electrical energy in a energy efficient and cost efficient way

  24. Biomass Energy
    -energy that is generated from plant and animal matter

    NOTE: is carbon neutral however it adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere

    ADVANTAGES: results in less acid rain (compared to the burning of fossil fuels), and there are no heavy metals emitted

    DISADVANTAGES: there are not large supplies of biomass

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